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Building costs in New York are 6% more than the national average, higher than 42 states in the USA. Traditionally, New York is the most expensive city to build in the USA due to a sustained construction boom that took off in 2007, spanning over a decade of a 38% price increase culminating in 2018 and continuing. Commercial buildings for office space, retail and the hospital industry as well as the city’s demand for upmarket multi-dwelling units are the major drivers of increasing costs. Infrastructural development projects also add to the composite cost index. Office building costs including renovations and alterations increase at a much faster rate than other categories in New York.
According to annual reports by Arcadis International Inc, New York was consistently in the top 5 most expensive cities to build in the world, taking the top spot for three years in 2016, 2017 and 2019. In 2018, New York was the second most expensive city to build after San Francisco. The year 2018 saw 5 American cities in the top 10 global rankings, with San Francisco, New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago at number 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 respectively. In 2019, New York regained its international spot as the most expensive city to build, with San Francisco coming second. Building costs in Boston slided down to 10^{th} position, and Philadelphia came in at number 11. In 2020, New York was edged by London as the most expensive city to build in the world, while San Francisco fell to 5^{th} position. In 2021, New York was the 6^{th} most expensive city in the world to build commercial and luxury multi-family residential properties , followed by San Francisco.
Just like other major cities in the United States, the state of New York was affected by the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020, disrupting the 9-year growth curve in employment, construction spending and aggregate volume of projects. The state lost 44,400 jobs in the construction sector, of which half (23,300) are from the City of New York alone. This was the worst decline in construction employment since 1995. Small construction firms with a maximum headcount of 20 contribute 33% of employment in New York’s construction industry. The city employs the highest number of migrant construction workers in the United States and in the state. Migrants make up 53% of workers on industrial payroll. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, construction spending declined to $55.5 billion and total projects valuation declined to $85 billion. Despite being the 4^{th} biggest construction sector in the USA in 2020, the State of New York incurred the biggest losses in construction jobs, as overall unemployment hovered around 9% since 2020. On the premise of a rebound predicted by the New York Building Congress, the Federal Government committed $1.9 trillion in Stimulus Funds targeted towards capital projects to spur construction activity and improve infrastructure around the country.
Cumming Report New York 2021 – Construction Volume by Sector – Third Quarter
The chart below shows the annual construction volumes by sector between 2016 and 2020, as well as the projections from 2021 to 2023. There was $65,172 million worth of residential construction projects in 2016, followed by a decrease in volume in 2017, valued at $63,505 million. The decline continued in the following year, finishing off at $61,730 million in 2018. The volume of residential construction projects increased in 2019 to $62,647 million. The biggest decline occurred in 2020, with the total volume of residential construction works plunging to $60,145 million due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The residential construction industry was expected to recover in 2021 despite the Covid-19 pandemic, increasing to $61,961 million worth of projects. The biggest drops in residential building are projected to $57,813 million in 2022 and $55,606 million in 2023.
Annual construction volumes in commercial building follow a nearly similar trend between 2016 and 2020, and 2021 to 2023. There was $9,628 million worth of office, retail and hospitality building projects in 2016. The volume increased to $9,947 million in 2017 and $10,140 million in 2018. The volume decreased to $9,839 million in 2019 which was the beginning of a four-year decline projected to 2023. In 2020, the total volume of commercial construction projects decreased to $8,830 million due to the Covid-19 pandemic. A further decline is expected in 2021, projected to $8,035 million, and finishing off at $7,754 million in 2023.
Residential projects contribute the largest volume in the construction market in terms of aggregate contract amounts, followed by infrastructure which is roughly half the volume of residential projects. In third place is the education sector which is 45% the volume of residential projects, followed by commercial building which is 43% the volume of residential projects. At the bottom are the manufacturing and healthcare sectors which are roughly 10% the volume of residential construction.
The chart below shows the combined volumes in all sectors (residential, commercial, manufacturing, healthcare, education, infrastructure and other). In 2016, there $18,000 million worth of construction projects, which increased to $18,750 million in 2017 and $19,000 million in 2018. The rise in volumes continued to $19,500 million in 2019 and nearly $21,000 million in 2020. Volumes remained stable in 2021 at a little over $20,000 million and under $21,000 million.
The chart below shows the construction spending index from 2012 to 2021 and projected to 2023. The city, state and national spending indices are compared between this period. Beginning with the base year in 2012, the city spending index matched the national index, rising slowly along the same curve between 2012 and 2013. It then deviated from the national index, taking a steep upward slope to the peak value at 1.4 in 2015. From this point it fell down a steep slope, intersecting with the national index in 2016. The city spending index then took a relatively stable decline up to 2021, settling at 1.2. So basically, construction spending in New York City was equal to the National Average from 2012 to 2013, and way higher than the National Average between 2013 and 2016. Construction spending in New York City fell way below the National Average between 2016 and thereafter. Construction spending in the State of New York remained below NYC in the whole period 2012 to 2021, with the exception of 2015 where State spending was equal to the City of New York.
The chart below shows the top 10 biggest construction projects in the State of New York as at 2021. The aggregate volume of these projects is $122.7 billion, and the City of New York contributes $97.2 billion (79%) worth of projects in the state. The Gateway Tunnel is the most expensive project in the State of New York, valued at $29.1 billion, followed by the Second Avenue Subway (Phase 2) project valued at $17 billion. The third most expensive projects are the Sunnyside Yard Expansion and Second Avenue Subway (Phase 3) at around $14.4 and $14.2 billion respectively. In fourth place is the Hudson River Tunnel project valued at $11.6 billion. The Eastside Access Project comes fifth at $11.1 billion. This is followed by the AirTrain LaGuardia project at $8 billion. In seventh position is the Staten Island Railway Project valued at $7.1 billion. This is followed by the NYCTA Subways and Staten Island Railway Project at $5.2 billion. The Empire Station Complex is the 10^{th} most expensive project in the State of New York at $5 billion.
The chart below shows the building costs per square foot in New York for residential, commercial, healthcare, educational, public, community and industrial buildings including parking. Detached single family homes of medium quality cost $396 per square foot to build, whereas mid-rise apartments and condos will take $859 per square foot to build.
The NYBC chart below shows construction spending in the City of New York over a two-decade span from 2000 to 2020, as well as the projected spending up to 2022. The bar chart shows spending gently increasing from $14 billion to $17 billion from 2000 to 2002. It then drops to $15 billion in 2003 and rises over a steep slope to $31 billion in 2007. It drops to $30 billion in 2008 and declines to $26 billion in 2009. Spending rises again to $30 billion in 2010 and falls once again to $23 billion in the following year. A sustained steep rise in spending is observed between 2011 and 2019, rising from $23 billion to $60 billion over an eight-year span at an average rate of 12.9% per year. This was followed by the first drop in spending in 2020 caused by the Covid-19 pandemic impact, which reduced spending to $55 billion, a figure which resembles average spending in 2017 and 2018. Spending is projected to remain relatively stable in 2021 and 2022.
The overall construction spending in 2020 can be broken down by sectors. The residential building sector realized a 9.8% decrease in spending, amounting to $17.8 billion. Spending in residential construction is expected to decrease in 2021 and 2022 as New York experiences a declining population.
The non-residential sector realized a 21.4% decrease in spending, amounting to $16.6 billion. Spending in commercial construction (office and hotel) is expected to increase in 2021 and 2022.
The public sector realized a 6.7% increase in spending, amounting to $21 billion, driven by Federal Stimulus Funds targeting capital projects. A sum of $5.9 billion in Stimulus Funds was allocated to the City of New York alone, whereas the State received $12.7 billion in funds.
The NYC Department of Buildings oversees the approval of new building plans to ensure compliance with municipality codes. A building permit which gives the green light to begin construction on site is issued upon approval of the drawings and other submissions. The chart below indicates the number of building permits issued in the City of New York on a yearly basis, from 2000 to 2020:
About 83,000 building permits were issued in 2000, increasing on a year-by-year basis until 2007 to reach a peak value of 125,000 permits within the first decade. The number of permits remained stable in 2008 then fell to 115,000 permits in 2009, remaining stable in 2010 before rising along a steep slope to 176,400 permits in 2019. In 2020, the number of building permits issued by the NYC Department of Buildings plunged to 140,000 resembling the figures in 2013. The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic was felt as construction activity was disrupted and building proposals were shelved.
Between 2010 and 2019, three New York Boroughs saw an increase in new building permits, namely Brooklyn, Staten Island and the Bronx which increased by 73.5%, 61.5% and 53% respectively. Two New York Boroughs saw a drop in new permits, namely Manhattan and Queens which dropped by 23.4% and 19% respectively.
There was a 31.2% drop in permits in 2020. The first quarter of 2021 registered 20.4% more permits than the same period in 2020, but less than the same period in 2019.
According to the Wage and Employment Census by the NYS Department of Labour, small construction firms with a maximum headcount of 19 employed 34% of workers in the construction industry in 2020. There were 14,004 firms with less than 20 employees. Medium-size firms with 20 to 99 workers employed 33% of workers in the construction industry. There were 1142 medium-size firms in 2020. Large firms with 100 to 499 workers employed 28% of workers in the construction industry. There were 208 large firms in 2020. Mega-size firms with 500 or more workers employed 4% of workers in the construction industry. There were 8 mega-size firms in 2020.
The chart below shows the construction cost index in the City of New York over an eleven-year span from 2007 to 2018. Three construction indices are compared to each other, as well as against the New York consumer price index (CPI). The Rider Levett Bucknall (RLB) Construction Index is the Tender Price Index, whereas the ENR Construction Index is based on common labour costs and the ENR Building Index is based on the costs of building trades (bricklaying, carpentry and structural steel).
Starting with the base year at 98.75, from 2007 to the first quarter of 2009, the RLB cost index was higher than the ENR and New York CPI which both shared the same curve. In the first quarter of 2009, the indices intersected at a point for the first time (162.5), with the RLB index declining and the ENR indices rising over the RLB index up until 2018 (156.5). The ENR Construction Index was consistently higher than the ENR Building Index, up to 2018, with the exception of the first month of 2015 when both indices were briefly the same, interesting at a point (128.5) before the ENR Construction Index rose again over the ENR Building Index. All three construction indices were way higher than the CPI as from the last quarter of 2012, deviating by a wider margin with each successive year.
As at February 2019, New York was the most expensive city in the world to build luxury and prestigious office buildings, with these of type of offices going at $565 per square foot. In second, third and fourth place was London ($465), Hong Kong ($420) and Sydney ($340) respectively. New York was also the most expensive city in the world to build luxury hotels at $600 per square foot. In second, third and fourth place was Hong Kong ($520), London ($450) and Sydney ($400) respectively.
In retail construction, London was the most expensive place to build in the world at $600 per square foot. New York was the second most expensive to build at $420 per square foot. In third and fourth place was Hong Kong ($340) and Sydney ($275) respectively.
In multi-family residential construction, London was the most expensive to build at $530 per square foot, followed by Hong Kong at $520 per square foot. In third and fourth place was New York at $375/ft2 and Sydney at $365/ft2 respectively.
As at February 2019, New York was the most expensive city in the USA to build office and retail properties. It was the second most expensive city to build hotels and K-12 educational facilities. New York was the third most expensive city in the USA to build multi-family residential buildings.
Multi-family residential construction in New York was the third most expensive in the USA, at $440 per square foot. San Francisco was the most expensive at $500 per square foot. In second place was Chicago at $460 per square foot, followed by Los Angeles at $380 per square foot. In fourth place was Boston and Washington DC at $370 per square foot. Denver came in at $275 per square foot.
Office construction in New York was the most expensive in the USA, at $600 per square foot, followed by Boston at $475 per square foot, and Chicago at $450 per square foot. In fourth place was Washington DC at $415 per square foot, followed by Los Angeles at $385 per square foot. In sixth place was San Francisco at $375 per square foot, followed by Denver at $290 per square foot.
Retail construction in New York was the most expensive in the USA, at $470 per square foot, followed by San Francisco at $415 per square foot. In third place was Los Angeles at $400 per square foot, followed by Chicago at $375 per square foot. In fifth place was Boston and Washington DC tied at $365 per square foot. Denver came in at $230 per square foot.
Hotel construction in New York was the second most expensive in the USA, at $650 per square foot, resembling San Francisco. Chicago was the most expensive city to build a hotel at $663 per square foot. In third place was Boston at $575 per square foot, followed by Los Angeles and Washington DC at $550 per square foot. Denver came in at $300 per square foot.
The graph below shows the number of proposed projects (building plans) filed with the NYC Department of Buildings from 2008 to 2020, compiled by REBNY (Real Estate Board of New York). A building filing is an application for a building permit. In 2008, about 1,350 building plans were filed in New York. This was followed by a steep decline in the number of project submissions in 2009 caused by the Global Economic Crisis (2007 to 2009) triggered by a crash in the US housing market. House prices shot up the roof as mortgage lenders relaxed loan eligibility requirements, extending credit to unqualified people at low-interest rates and increasing demand in the market. This lending practice worked as house prices rose, but it would lead to a financial crisis as demand fell in 2007, with house prices slumping and interest rates rising.
The housing market crash can be seen on the chart as the number of new building plans filed with the NYC Department of Buildings fell sharply to 750 in 2009. The sharp decline continued into 2010 as the number of new building filings fell to 400, a record low within the 12-year span.
In 2011, new building filings increased for the first time to 650, taking a sharp upward trajectory until 2014 which registered a record high of 3200 within the 12-year span. By 2013, the housing market had already recovered as 1350 filings were made, resembling the 2008 figures.
After reaching the peak value (3200) in 2014, the number of building plans submitted for approval in New York fell sharply to 1900 in 2015. The decline continued albeit on a medium slope up to 2017 which registered 1450 filings. The number remained stable in 2018, and then climbed up a gentle slope to 1600 filings in 2019. The number of submissions decreased in 2020 to 1250, which was a result of the Covid-19 pandemic.
The graph below shows the number of building plans (quarterly filings) submitted for multi-family residential buildings in the City of New York. Building plan submissions for multi-family residential buildings are compared against the total number of multi-dwelling units (MDUs) which are the living units inside the residential building/block. The number of quarterly building filings and MDUs are for the 2008 to 2020 period.
There was a quarterly average of 2000 MDUs in 2008, 4250 MDUs in 2009, 2150 MDUs in 2010, 3750 MDUs in 2011, 4000 MDUs in 2012, 7500 MDUs in 2013, 9750 MDUs in 2014, 7750 MDUs in 2015, 6750 MDUs in 2016, 7500 MDUs in 2017, 9400 MDUs in 2018, 7150 MDUs in 2019. The last quarter of 2020 ended with 7299 MDUs, an increase over 4679 MDUs in the 3^{rd} quarter of 2020. There were 27,402 MDUs in 2020, which declined by 17.62% from the previous year.
In 2020, the number of building filings increased on a quarterly basis. The first quarter had 360 building submissions. The second quarter had 386 submissions, the third quarter had 441 submissions and the last quarter had 544 submissions, which was a 33.66% increase from the previous year.
New York City has 5 boroughs. In 2020, there were 169 building plans submitted in Queens representing a 52.25% increase from the previous year. Brooklyn had 146 building plans submitted with the NYC authorities, which was -11.45% decline from the previous year. Staten Island had 119 applications for building approval, representing a 52.56% increase from the previous year. The Bronx had 89 applications for building approval, representing a 36.92% increase from the previous year. Lastly, Manhattan had 21 building filings in 2020, which was a -4.55% decline from the previous year.
The largest projects in the State of New York by construction square foot are:
9,449 square feet GFA 6 storey mixed-use development with 5 MDUs on 372-St-Marks-Place, Brighton Heights in Staten Island.
166,679 square feet GFA 28 storey multi-family residential building on 620-W-153rd-St, Hamilton Heights in Manhattan.
407,328 square feet GFA 15 storey mixed-use development with MDUs, commercial and industrial space on 145-Wolcot-St, Red Hook in Brooklyn.
692,749 square feet GFA 43 storey multi-family residential building on 355-Exterior-St, Mott Haven in The Bronx.
842,240 square feet GFA 39 storey mixed-use development with 812 MDUs on 2-10-54^{th}-Avenue, Long Island City in Queens.
The RLB chart below shows the building costs per square foot in New York for residential, commercial, healthcare, educational and industrial buildings including parking. An average single-family home takes $310 to $610 per square foot to build depending on its quality. An average multi-family residential building takes $220 to $420 per square foot to build depending on its quality.
The quarterly construction index in New York was as follows: The comparative cost index was 27,734 in April 2020, 28,008 in July 2020 and 28,112 in October 2020. The index was 28,542 and 29,507 in January and April of 2021 respectively. This was an annual change of 6.39% based on the month of April in the current and previous year. New York had the biggest change in the construction index of all major cities in the USA, followed by Washington DC, Portland, Chicago and Phoenix.
The second quarter of 2020 registered a 0.99% change in the construction cost index. The last quarter of 2020 registered a 0.37% change in the cost index. The first quarter of 2021 registered a 1.53% change in the cost index, and the second quarter of 2021 registered a 3.38% change in the cost index.
The quality of a house is determined by the type of materials used and the architectural design. In the United States, the following types of private dwellings are found in the market:
Class 1 – Luxury homes
Class 2 – Semi-luxury homes
Class 3 – Best standard homes
Class 4 – Good standard homes
Class 5 – Average standard homes
Class 6 – Minimum standard homes
In residential/housing projects, the construction cost per square foot is inversely proportional to the contract sum of the project. That means the construction cost per square foot will increase as the project value decreases, and the square foot cost will decrease as the project value increases. How is this? Builders’ pricing habits have a bearing on the square foot cost, which also includes the contractor’s profit and overheads. In a small building project, contractors have to factor in the risk of under-pricing, loss, profit erosion and being stuck on breakeven point. Thus, a higher profit margin is needed in this case to mitigate the risks. Larger projects with a huge contract sum are safe for contractors in terms of the amount of profit and cushion for risks. The building costs below were last updated in December 2020:
The building cost per square foot for luxury private homes in New York ranges from $365.58 per sqft to $560.42 per sqft, with the average being $431.44 per sqft. As the bar chart shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for semi-luxury private homes in New York ranges from $222.19 per sqft to $340.58 per sqft, with the average being $262.20 per sqft. As the bar chart shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for best-standard private homes in New York ranges from $143.63 per sqft to $218.16 per sqft, with the average being $168.16 per sqft. As the bar chart shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for good-standard private homes in New York ranges from $104.82 per sqft to $160.75 per sqft, with the average being $123.71 per sqft. As the bar graph shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for average-standard private homes in New York ranges from $85.09 per sqft to $130.31 per sqft, with the average being $100.33 per sqft. As the bar graph shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for minimum-standard private homes in New York ranges from $67.11 per sqft to $102.86 per sqft, with the average being $79.16 per sqft. As the bar graph shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
There are 994 municipalities grouped into 22 metropolitan areas in the state of New York. The bar chart below indicates that building costs vary in each metro city/town. The construction cost per square foot in each of these metropolitan cities varies from the state and national average by a certain percentage based on the location factor also known as the local modifier.
The building costs for single family homes in this post include all Bills of Quantities with the exception of HVAC installations. So the total costs include all construction trades, electrical installation, plumbing, built-in cupboards, plumbing fittings, local authority fees and permits, utility connections (water, gas, sewer etc), professional fees (architect, engineers etc.), contingency sum, contractor’s profit, attendance and overheads. The Location Factor represents the value of the local construction index, i.e. variation in the cost of labour, materials and supervision. In working out the building costs per square foot, the cost of land, existing infrastructure, land servicing, allowance for escalation, interest costs, parking and loose furniture are not included in the estimate. Ground conditions are assumed to be normal for estimating purposes, but for your own project, you have to factor in ground conditions, weather and climate because no two projects are the same.
The percentage deviation of building costs from the National Average for each metropolitan area in New York is shown below.
If $X is the Average National Building Cost in the USA, then it will cost the following to build a residential property in each metro city/town in New York:
The Metropolitan Area List above as well as the Bar Graphs below indicate that Jamestown is the cheapest city to build a private home in the state of New York, and New York City and Manhattan are the most expensive cities to build a home. Building costs are -7% below the national average in Jamestown and 31% above the national average in New York and Manhattan.
Jamestown is cheapest to place to build at -7% below the national average, followed by Niagara Falls at -6% below the national average. The third cheapest place to build a house is Ithaca at -5% below the national average, followed by Kingston at -4% below the national average. The fourth cheapest place to build is Elmira at -3% below the national average, followed by Binghamton at -2% below the national average. The sixth cheapest place to build a home is Plattsburgh at -1% below the national average. Building costs in Newcomb are equal to the National Average. Construction costs in Batavia and Buffalo are 1% above the national average.
If anything between 5% and 10% is considered expensive, then there are six such metropolitan areas in the state of New York. Building a house in the city of New York is 6% more than the national average. Building a home in Albany, Brooklyn and Montauk is 7% above the national average. Building costs in Amityville are 9% above the national average. A newly built home in the Bronx will cost 10% above the national average.
If anything between 10% and 15% is considered more expensive, then there are five metropolitan areas in state of New York. Building costs in Hicksville and Jamaica are 14% above the national average, whereas those in Flushing and Garden City are 15% above the national average.
The most expensive places to build a house in the state of New York are those 15% above the national average. New York City and Manhattan are the most expensive places to build a house in the state at 31% above the national average, followed by Long Island at 30%.
Private home building costs in the state of New York are 6% above the national average. Building cost rates in the metropolitan areas of Albany, Brooklyn and Montauk are closer to the New York state average by a deviation of 1%. New York is one of the most expensive states to build a home in the United States.
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Building costs in Pennsylvania are 1% lower than the national average, cheaper than 23 states in the USA. Just like other states in the United States, the state of Pennsylvania was hit by the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020, sending the rate of unemployment up the roof in many sectors including construction. In the construction industry, the affected sectors were residential and commercial building which saw many projects come to a standstill, paused and shelved for months, with both new and proposed projects being discontinued or cancelled. The other sectors remained resilient to the Covid-19 induced recession, namely capital infrastructural projects, K-12 education and healthcare. Projects in these sectors continued throughout year or resumed immediately on May 1 after the six-week shutdown beginning in March 19 with little to no impact.
Growth forecasts have been revised in the wake of Covid-19. According to the American Institute of Architects (AIA), non-residential construction is expected to see a -11% decline in spending, a reversal from a projected +1.5% increase. Commercial construction is expected to see a -14% decline in spending, a reversal from a projected +0.6% increase. Projects in education, healthcare, public works and other institutions are expected to see a (-7%) decline in spending, a reversal from a projected +2.9% growth.
Institutional projects will spur construction activity in the state of Pennsylvania as evidenced in nationwide trends, while commercial projects (hotel and retail) will decline. Covid-19 might have contributed to a rise in unemployment as projects came to a standstill, but traditionally there are abundant jobs in the construction sector which are hard to fill. This scenario was apparent post-Covid, with a shortage of labour across the country including Pennsylvania, where more than 400,000 jobs are still vacant despite good hourly rates which are two times higher than the hospitality industry.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the state of Pennsylvania. According to Arcadis International, Philadelphia was the 14^{th} most expensive city to build in the world in 2020. Building costs in Philadelphia dropped on the international chart in 2021 as the city declined to number 18 in the world.
According to the 2021 construction outlook survey for Pennsylvania by the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC). On the overall, there was a negative outlook in the value of projects expected in 2021.
Negative Outlook
54% of contractors expected a decrease in the value multi-family home projects.78% expected a decrease in the value of private office space. 83% expected a decrease in the value of holiday accommodation and lodging. 94% of contractors surveyed expected a decrease in retail projects. 71% expected a decrease in public building projects. 92% expected a decrease in K-12 educational facilities. 76% expected a decrease in higher education facilities. 53% expected a decrease in warehouse building. 43% expected a decrease in hospital building.44% expected a decrease in clinic and healthcare support services. 73% expected a decrease in transportation infrastructure projects. 73% expected a decrease in bridge/highway projects. 57% expected a decrease in water/sewer reticulation projects, and 57% expected a decrease in industrial building.
Positive Outlook
Warehouse building had the highest expectations at 40%, followed by industrial building at 29%. In third place was clinic and healthcare support services at 25%, followed by hospital projects at 19% and higher education facilities at 18%. 11% of contractors surveyed expected an increase in private office building. 8% expected an increase in multi-family residential building, 7% expected an increase in public building, 6% expected an increase in retail projects. No contractor expected a positive outlook in K-12 educational building and holiday accommodation.
Consistency Outlook
In most construction categories, consistency predictions were much higher than those who expressed a positive outlook, although the majority of contractors had a negative outlook for 2021.
38% of contractors surveyed expected the value of multi-family residential and hospital projects to remain the same in 2021. 36% expected water/sewer reticulation projects to remain unaffected. 31% of contractors expected the value of clinic and healthcare support services to remain the same. 27% expected no change in the value of transportation infrastructure. 20% expected no change in the value of bridge/highway projects. 21% expected public building projects to remain the same. 17% expected hospitality projects to remain the same. 14% expected the value of industrial building projects to remain the same. 11% expected private office projects to remain the same. 8% of contractors surveyed expected no change in the value of K-12 educational projects. 7% expected the value of warehouse projects to remain the same. 6% expected no change in the value of higher educational projects. No contractor expected a change in the value of retail projects.
Headcount
48% of contractors expected a decrease in headcount, while 26% expected no change and the same number expected an increase. 26% had a hard time filling in positions for staff and skilled labour. The same number had no difficulty in filling these positions. 48% of contractors said they had no openings for these positions.
11% predicted filling in current positions will remain hard in 2021, 7% said it will be much harder, 44% said there will be no change and 4% said it will be easier to fill in positions in 2021.
Effects of Pandemic, Labour Shortages and Pay Rates on Projects
Due to labour and personnel shortages, 52% of contractors said they increased benefits and basic remuneration to attract applicants. 33% did not change the base pay and 11% reduced pay rates. 7% provided benefits and incentives, while 7% eliminated or reduced benefits.
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, 48% of contractors said shortage of staff and skilled labour has increased the cost of doing business. 74% said this has delayed project completion, and 30% of contractors have increased their tender rates, while 22% have reduced their tender rates. Due to staffing challenges and shortage of labour, 11% of contractors surveyed said they have increased their project completion times in bid contracts.
In 2020, 54% of contractors surveyed said their projects had been postponed to 2021. 46% said their projects were cancelled with no postponement, and 19% said their projects are ongoing, with no cancellation or postponement.
Biggest Contractor Concerns
The impact of Covid-19 on projects, availability of human resources and suppliers was the biggest concern among Florida contractors going into 2021, with 89% of respondents expressing this view. The second biggest worry among contractors was the Covid-19 insurance claims filed by workers (48%). The third biggest worry was the lack of high quality workers and increased competition in bidding (44%). This was followed by lack of infrastructural capital financing and lack of projects in the private sector (41%). 37% of contractors surveyed expressed concerns about rising material costs. 33% were worried about shortages of labour. 30% were concerned about federal regulations as well as lack of capital for public building projects. 26% were worried about local authority regulations by the state and municipalities, as well as the cost of various services like insurance and trucking. 22% expressed concerns about site safety, poor training and education, as well as relationships with subcontractors, owners and vendors. 19% of contractors were worried about increased labour costs. 15% were concerned about the availability and quality of subcontractors.
Amount of Work Done and Number of Employees
About 77% of contractors surveyed said they have done $50 million worth of projects or less during the year 2020. 23% have done projects between $50 million and $500 million, and none of the contractors have done projects over $500 million. Most construction firms (54%) have 20 to 99 employees, 4% have 500 or more employees, and 23% have 100 to 499 workers in their employ.
Cumming Report Philadelphia 2021 – Construction Volume by Sector – Third Quarter
The chart below shows the annual construction volumes by sector between 2016 and 2020, as well as the projections from 2021 to 2023. There was $4,604 million worth of residential construction projects in 2016, followed by a decrease in volume in 2017, valued at $4,763 million. The decline continued in the following year, finishing off at $4,319 million in 2018. The volume of residential construction projects decline further in 2019 to $4,123 million, before increasing to 4,923 million in 2020 and rising to the highest ever at $5,391 million in 2021. The total volumes of residential construction are projected to decline to $4,704 million in 2022, and $15,990 million in 2023 due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Annual construction volumes in commercial building were as follows between 2016 and 2020, and 2021 to 2023. There was $2,842 million worth of office, retail and hospitality building projects in 2016. The volume increased to $2,922 million in 2017 and $2,975 million in 2018. The volume decreased to $2,873 million in 2019 which was the beginning of a four-year decline projected to 2023. In 2020, the total volume of commercial construction projects decreased to $2,666 million due to the Covid-19 pandemic. A further decline is expected in 2021, projected to $2,416 million, and finishing off at $2,309 million in 2023.
Residential projects contribute the largest volume in the construction market in terms of aggregate contract amounts, followed by infrastructure which is roughly 87% of the volume of residential projects. In third place is commercial building which is 62% of the volume of residential projects, followed by the education sector which is 57% of the volume of residential projects. At the bottom is the manufacturing and healthcare sectors which are roughly 19% of the volume of residential construction.
Cumming Report Philadelphia 2021 – Annual Construction Volume (All Sectors) Philadelphia
The chart below shows the combined volumes in all sectors (residential, commercial, manufacturing, healthcare, education, infrastructure and other). In 2016, there were $17,184 million worth of construction projects, which declined to $17,019 million in 2017 and $16,531 million in 2018. The decline in volumes continued to $16,444 million in 2019 and increased to $17,056 million in 2020, remaining stable at $17,055 million in 2021. Volumes declined to $16,262 million in 2022 and $15,990 million in 2023.
Cumming Report New York 2021 – Construction Spending Index in the State and City (Pennsylvania and Philadelphia)
The chart below shows the construction spending index from 2012 to 2021 and projected to 2023. The city, state and national spending indices are compared between this period. Between 2012 and 2021, the construction spending index in the state of Pennsylvania hovered between 0.9 and 1.07. It is projected to remain stable from 2021 to 2023, hovering between 0.9 and 1.0
The construction spending index in the city of Philadelphia hovered between 0.97 and 1.12 over the 11 year span projected to 2023. As shown in the chart, the Philadelphia spending index is above the state curve, with the deviation widening as one moves along the span. This indicates that construction spending in the city of Philadelphia is much higher than the state average. The national construction spending index in the USA is way higher than the Philadelphia and Pennsylvania index.
Cumming Report New York 2021 – Major Construction Projects in Philadelphia
The chart below shows the top 10 biggest construction projects in Philadelphia as at 2021. The aggregate volume of these projects is $1709.5 billion. There are two mega projects contributing $1694.5 billion (99%) of the total valuation in the state. These are the Philadelphia International Airport Terminal and the Jefferson University Health Specialty Care Pavilion valued at $932.5 billion and $762 billion respectively. The third most expensive project is the Philadelphia 30^{th} Street Station District project valued at $6.5 billion. In fourth place is the King of Prussia Rail Project valued at $2.0 billion. The New Inpatient Tower (Children’s Hospital of PA) comes fifth at $1.9 billion. This is followed by the PA International Airport Airfield Improvements project at $611 million. In seventh position is the Piazza Terminal Apartments Project and the Spring Garden Street Mixed Use Development valued at $500 million. The eighth most expensive project in Philadelphia is the Clinical Collaboration Hub at the PA Children’s Hospital valued at $492 million.
Cumming Report New York 2021 – Building Costs Per Square Foot in Philadelphia
The chart below shows the building costs per square foot in Philadelphia for residential, commercial, healthcare, educational, public, community and industrial buildings including parking. The cost of building detached single family homes of medium quality ranges from $254 to $304 per square foot, whereas mid-rise apartments and condos will take $393 to $512 per square foot to build.
The quality of a house is determined by the type of materials used and the architectural design. In the United States, the following types of private dwellings are found in the market:
Class 1 – Luxury homes
Class 2 – Semi-luxury homes
Class 3 – Best standard homes
Class 4 – Good standard homes
Class 5 – Average standard homes
Class 6 – Minimum standard homes
In residential/housing projects, the construction cost per square foot is inversely proportional to the contract sum of the project. That means the construction cost per square foot will increase as the project value decreases, and the square foot cost will decrease as the project value increases. How is this? Builders’ pricing habits have a bearing on the square foot cost, which also includes the contractor’s profit and overheads. In a small building project, contractors have to factor in the risk of under-pricing, loss, profit erosion and being stuck on breakeven point. Thus, a higher profit margin is needed in this case to mitigate the risks. Larger projects with a huge contract sum are safe for contractors in terms of the amount of profit and cushion for risks. The building costs below were last updated in December 2020:
The building cost per square foot for luxury private homes in Pennsylvania ranges from $341.44 to $523.41 per sqft, with the average being $402.95 per sqft. As the bar chart shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for semi-luxury private homes in Pennsylvania ranges from $207.51 to $318.09 per sqft, with the average being $244.89 per sqft. As the bar chart shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for best-standard private homes in Pennsylvania ranges from $134.15 to $203.75 per sqft, with the average being $157.06 per sqft. As the bar chart shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for good-standard private homes in Pennsylvania ranges from $97.90 to $150.13 per sqft, with the average being $115.54 per sqft. As the bar graph shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for average-standard private homes in Pennsylvania ranges from $79.47 to $121.70 per sqft, with the average being $93.71 per sqft. As the bar graph shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
The building cost per square foot for minimum-standard private homes in Pennsylvania ranges from $62.68 to $96.07 per sqft, with the average being $73.94 per sqft. As the bar graph shows below, bigger homes with a large gross floor area have the lowest building costs per ft2, and smaller homes with a small gross floor area have the highest building costs per ft2. Medium-sized homes are somewhere in between. Generally, the building cost per square foot decreases as the size of the house gets bigger, and increases as the house gets smaller.
There are 2560 municipalities including 56 cities grouped into 67 counties in the state of Pennsylvania. The bar chart below indicates that building costs vary in each city/town. The construction cost per square foot in each of these cities varies from the state and national average by a certain percentage based on the location factor also known as the local modifier.
The building costs for single family homes in this post include all Bills of Quantities with the exception of HVAC installations. So the total costs include all construction trades, electrical installation, plumbing, built-in cupboards, plumbing fittings, local authority fees and permits, utility connections (water, gas, sewer etc), professional fees (architect, engineers etc.), contingency sum, contractor’s profit, attendance and overheads. The Location Factor represents the value of the local construction index, i.e. variation in the cost of labour, materials and supervision. In working out the building costs per square foot, the cost of land, existing infrastructure, land servicing, allowance for escalation, interest costs, parking and loose furniture are not included in the estimate. Ground conditions are assumed to be normal for estimating purposes, but for your own project, you have to factor in ground conditions, weather and climate because no two projects are the same.
The percentage deviation of building costs from the National Average for each city in Pennsylvania is shown below.
If $X is the Average National Building Cost in the USA, then it will cost the following to build a residential property in each metro city/town in Pennsylvania:
Pennsylvania Average -1% (1% less than X)
Allentown 181 (3%)
Altoona 166 (-8%)
Beaver Springs 178 (-5% )
Bethlehem 180 (4%)
Bradford 167 (-8%)
Butler 160 (-2%)
Chambersburg 172 (-7%)
Clearfield 168 (-3%)
DuBois 158 (-10%)
East Stroudsburg 183 (-5%)
Erie 164-165 (-6%)
Genesee 169 (-4%)
Greensburg 156 (-4%)
Harrisburg 170-171 (3%)
Hazleton 182 (-3%)
Johnstown 159 (-9%)
Kittanning 162 (-6%)
Lancaster 175-176 (-1%)
Meadville 163 (-9%)
Montrose 188 (-4%)
New Castle 161 (-3%)
Philadelphia 190-191 (11%)
Pittsburgh 152 (6%)
Pottsville 179 (-8%)
Punxsutawney 157 (-3%)
Reading 195-196 (2%)
Scranton 184-185 (1%)
Somerset 155 (-9%)
Southeastern 193 (8%)
Uniontown 154 (-6%)
Valley Forge 194 (11%)
Warminster 189 (11%)
Warrendale 150-151 (5%)
Washington 153 (8%)
Wilkes Barre 186-187 (-1%)
Williamsport 177 (-2%)
York 173-174 (-1%)
The City List above as well as the Bar Graphs below show that DuBois is the cheapest city to build a private home in the state of Pennsylvania, and three cities Philadelphia, Valley Forge and Warminster are the most expensive cities to build a home. Building costs are -10% below the national average in DuBois and 11% above the national average in Philadelphia, Valley Forge and Warminster.
DuBois is cheapest to place to build at -10% below the national average, followed by Johnstown, Meadville and Somerset at -9% below the national average. The third cheapest place to build a house are Altoona, Bradford and Pottsville at -8% below the national average, followed by Chambersburg at -7% below the national average. The fifth cheapest place to build are Erie, Kittanning and Uniontown at -6% below the national average, followed by Beaver Springs and East Stroudsburg at -5% below the national average. The seventh cheapest place to build a home is Genesee, Greenburg and Montrose at -4% below the national average. The eight cheapest place to build a home are Clearfield, Hazleton, New Castle and Punxsutawney at -3% below the national average. The ninth cheapest place to build a home are Butler and Williamsport at -2% below the national average. The tenth cheapest place to build a home are Lancaster, Wilkes Barre and York at -1% below the national average. Building costs in these three cities are equal to the State Average.
The eleventh cheapest place to build a home is Scranton at 1% above the national average. The twelfth cheapest place to build a home is Reading at 2% above the national average. The thirteenth cheapest place to build a home is Allentown and Harrisburg at 3% above the national average. The fourteenth cheapest place to build a home is Bethlehem at 4% above the national average.
If anything between 5% and 10% is considered expensive, then there are four such cities in the state of Pennsylvania. Building a house in the city of Warrendale is 5% more than the national average. Building a house in Southeastern and Washington is 8% above the national average.
If anything between 10% and 15% is considered more expensive, then there are three such cities in state of Pennsylvania. Building costs in Philadelphia, Valley Forge and Warminster are 11% above the national average.
The most expensive places to build a house are those which are 15% above the national average. There are no such places in the state of Pennsylvania.
Private home building costs in the state of Pennsylvania are -1% below the national average. Building costs in Lancaster, Wilkes Barre and York are equal to the State Average. Building cost rates in Scranton are closer to the Pennsylvania state average by a deviation of 1%. Pennsylvania is one of the cheapest states to build a home in the United States.
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A Construction Estimator in the USA also known as a Quantity Surveyor in the UK can work for a wide variety of companies and organizations in different types of industries. The role of a Building estimator is planning, calculating and managing the construction costs of a project. Professional Construction Estimators get their educational qualifications from colleges and universities around the world. Their practical training and experience is obtained from internships and employment with a diverse range of companies.
A company that an Estimator works for does not necessarily need to be a construction firm or building contractor. A recently graduated job seeker can work for a consulting firm that specializes in construction estimation for clients. This type of consultancy firm is known as a Quantity Surveying firm in the UK, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. There are local professional bodies in your country that you have to join and pass their exams if you want to practice as a Professional Quantity Surveyor or Estimator. In the USA, you have to pass exams by the American Society of Professional Estimators(ASPE)if you want to be a certified professional estimator.
If you live in the UK ( or British Commonwealth country) and aspiring to be an internationally recognized professional QS ,you can take your resume to further heights by writing the exams for an international body like theRoyal Institute of Chartered Quantity Surveyors(RICS).
As you will realize as you browse the list below, the options of employment for a Construction Estimator are very wide. While the usual employment channel for a traditional estimator is working for a building contractor or government, the modern estimator can work for hundreds of unlikely organizations and firms:
Building Contractor
Building contractors employ Estimators to handle the bidding process, prepare bid documents, price bills and manage the project costs throughout the contract period. An Estimator handles claims and disputes arising between the parties. He or she is responsible for monitoring work in progress, measuring work and materials on site and requesting payment when valuations are done. A professional estimator will help the construction company to be successful in securing tenders through accurate pricing. A contractor’s estimator works in liaison with the client’s estimator, making agreements, addendums and query lists.
Construction Estimation Consultancy / Quantity Surveying Firm
A Construction Cost Estimator who works for a Quantity Surveying consultancy represents the client who is the project financier or owner. Project financiers can be individuals who intend to build a residential house or organizations involved in property development. They can be government or local authorities with plans to build public infrastructure. The role of a Cost Estimator is to represent the client’s interests with regards to cost and budget. The Estimator strives to keep the building costs at a minimum as much as possible through interacting with the Architect who advises on the right design and materials for a specific budget.
Government Department of Public Works, Housing and Transport
Governments have Quantity Surveyors in their employ to run the department of public works, housing and transport. Names might be different according to your state or location but this is an essential department that builds public infrastructure such as low-cost mass housing for taxpayers, roads, airports, railways, civil engineering works, government facilities and buildings. A Quantity Surveyor employed by the government is responsible for project cost planning, budgeting, issuing and advertising tenders (construction bids), managing the bid process and selection of contractors. He or she will check the progress on site and authorize payment when a construction phase is satisfactorily completed. In most cases, the Government Estimator’s responsibilities will not go beyond the pre-contract stage, since third party estimating firms are contracted by the government to provide construction cost management, onsite valuations and final account processing.
Military Construction Division
The Military employs Construction Estimators to quantify and price the cost of building military facilities and bases. They also prepare cost estimates and get quotes for repairs, renovations and maintenance services. Soldiers with tertiary qualifications in professional estimating are preferred for this role and are quickly promoted to a higher rank.
Police Construction Division
Just like the Military, the Police have a department of civil engineering and construction which deals with cost estimation and pricing of new housing facilities, drainage works, refurbishments, repairs and maintenance. A certified construction estimator would be the most suitable person to run this department, and he or she would be fast-tracked to a higher rank if they have police training.
Private Property Developers
Property Developers or Property Development Corporations are responsible for the construction of shopping malls, apartments, office blocks, residential homes, commerce parks, amusement parks and many other facilities. They build these facilities for the purpose of renting and getting a positive return on their investment. Since a lot of capital running into millions and even billions of dollars is invested in building these facilities, the services of a professional construction estimator are needed to make sure that an accurate project cost estimation is made. On big projects, certified cost estimators with lots of experience are engaged to work in teams on each part of the construction phase.
Estimating teams will work on different sections of the plan like the basement, ablution block, offices, canteen, multi-level s of a storey building, parking etc.The estimators can also divide themselves into teams for measuring one trade, for example Excavations, Masonry, Concrete and Formwork, etc.
Banks and Lending Organizations
A lot of banks and lending institutions are involved in property development, which is an asset building strategy for directors and shareholders. These banks will recruit an in-house construction estimator to be a part of the company’s property development division. They may have subsidiary companies which specialize in property development and maintenance. If you look around town in your location, a lot of shopping malls and office parks are owned by banks.
Insurance, Pension Fund and Trust Companies
Just like banks, insurance corporations, pension fund and trust companies have a lot of liquid capital at their disposal which they use to develop properties around the country. This capital is invested in building apartments, industrial parks, hotels, holiday resorts and real estate. The insurance and pension fund industries have departments dedicated to developing, renovating and maintaining company property. A construction cost estimator or quantity surveyor will find a job with these organizations creating cost estimates for proposed projects.
Asset Management Companies
Asset Managers look after their clients’ property with a view of increasing or maintaining their value. They make sure that the client’s assets are being managed properly and efficiently without incurring huge costs. Asset management may thus include cost management of existing property as well as proposed properties to be built in the nearby future according to the development plans of the client. An experienced building cost estimator will help the asset manager to maintain the client’s budget as well as manage the construction costs.
Mining Companies
Construction estimators are valuable in the mining industry, since they are required to compile a cost estimation of setting up the mine infrastructure. This includes preliminaries such as housing, water and electricity supply for mine workers, cost of excavations, engineers living quarters, supply and delivery of machinery and building materials. The building estimator will get quotes for repairs, refurbishments and setting up new structures.
Steel Fabrication Industries
The steel manufacturing factory employs construction cost estimators to measure and take off quantities of steel from drawings created by the draughtsman. The right amount of steel has to be estimated in order to avoid costs from wastage. When a new manufacturing project is submitted by a buyer, the cost is unknown. It is the duty of an estimator to calculate the project cost before the work commences, so that the buyer can have an idea of the required budget.
Design and Build Contractors
These are building contractors with in-house architects and draughtsmen.They also employ estimators to do a cost estimation of the proposed home building plans. It is a good idea to hire a company that provides design, estimating and construction under one roof because it allows the client to save money and cut the costs of hiring third party consultants.
Building Materials Suppliers
Building contractors and project owners purchase construction materials directly from the suppliers. Building materials suppliers differ in size and scale. Major suppliers have big warehouses where they stock all kinds of materials and tools needed by a building contractor. The most common query asked by a new project owner is the cost of building a house or home. They want to know the cost and quantity of materials required for the project. Most materials suppliers have cost estimators in their departments who deal with such queries. They will ask for a house plan, which they use to take off quantities and price the items to get an estimated quote for the contract sum. Some estimators will ask for a blank Bill of Quantities, so that they can enter their prices.
Home Design, Remodeling, Refurbishments and Renovations Specialists
There are a lot of home design and remodeling specialists who employ construction cost estimators and quantity surveyors. The estimator is usually required to come up with cost estimates for pre-designed specifications and custom plans. He or she will be required to study the drawings and design sketches. It might be necessary to visit the client’s home to take measurements and photos.
Institutes of Construction Cost Research and Statistics
Construction price statistics (also known as the Construction Index) are very important to the building industry. They keep project developers informed about the current cost of building a specific structure in a certain location or region. A Quantity Surveyor who works for a building research institute compiles a database of annual construction costs in a specific town, city, state and region. The construction price index is updated on a month by month basis, allowing estimators to create an accurate cost estimate throughout the project. The price index can be a basis for a contractor to file claims for increases in the cost of materials (inflation).
Engineering Firms and Consultancies
Various types of engineering consulting firms specializing in the design of civil, mechanical, timber, steel, masonry and concrete structures employ construction estimators to work out a cost estimate for proposed works.
Manufacturing Industry
Manufacturers of mechanical systems and structures such as machined parts, automotive parts, mouldings, metal castings, wood framings, foam products, structural fittings and frames require the services of a cost estimator to quantify the cost of a mechanical project. The estimator needs to be able to interpret mechanical engineering drawings and take off quantities as needed.
Telecommunications Companies
Telecommunication companies invest in the installation of cables and signal broadcasting towers. The setting up of telecoms infrastructure involves a lot of construction work and engineering expertise. Permanent construction estimating technicians are therefore essential in this industry.
Project Management and Claims Consultancy
Consulting firms like Hill International provide project management services to property developers and clients who intend to build a facility such as an uptown home, hospital, hotels and so on. The consulting firm will take over the project from the pre-contract stage to the actual construction. Estimators are one of the professionals employed in this consultancy.
Real Estate Development and Property Management Firms
Real estate developers and property management organizations need the services of a Project Estimator to create budget proposals for future construction developments and funding purposes.
Landscaping & Architecture
An estimator working for a Landscape design and construction firm is responsible for administering the contract and estimating the construction cost of a design. The landscape estimator works in association with the landscape architect. He or she is responsible for monitoring the project cost, tracks progress and prepares payment schedules.
Energy Suppliers – Oil, Gas and Electricity
Energy companies employ Quantity Surveyors to deal with contractors and subcontractors in a working arrangement with the firm. The estimating technician will be responsible for preparing pricing schedules, contract administration and valuation of work in progress.
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Dubai is one of the most popular cities in the world known for its opulence and futuristic cities. This provincial capital shares its name with its province also known as Dubai. There are seven provinces in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) also known as Emirates. The UAE has its southern side bordered by Saudi Arabia and Oman on land, and the northern side is a long coastline facing the sea known as the Persian Gulf. There are 9.9 million people in the UAE and 3.3 million people in Dubai. Arabic is the official language in the UAE although English is also widely used in business and commerce. Dubai is the biggest city in the UAE and there are 21 cities with at least 10,000 people. Six cities have at least 100,000 people.
House prices per square metre are shown in the UAE currency, the Dirham (AED) as well as in foreign currencies such as the Euro and US Dollar in a few cases. A random survey of residential properties on sale in Dubai shows the following:
Allsop & Allsop Listings:
The most popular locations by density to buy homes and villas in Dubai are Dubai Hills Estate, The Springs, Arabian Ranches 2,Palm Jumirah, Mohammed Bin Rashid City, Tilal Al Ghaf, DAMAC Hills, Jumeirah Park, Arabian Ranches, Dubai Land, DAMAC Hills 2, Arabian Ranches 3, The Villa, Reem, Al Furjan, Meadows and Serena.
A semi-detached 3 bedroom two-storey villa located in Jumeirah Park. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, living room, dining, pantry, storage room, powder room, laundry, maids living quarters, balconies, HVAC, private backyard garden and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 5,490 ft2. Gross floor area of 3,063 ft2 (285m2). Total cost 3,550,000 AED, which converts to 12,456 AED per square metre or 1159 AED per square foot.
A detached 4 bedroom single-storey villa located in Green Community Motor City. Established house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 5 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking for six cars, living room, dining, 4x reception rooms, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, HVAC, private backyard garden and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 9,743 ft2. Gross floor area of 4,347 ft2 (404m2). Total cost 5,500,000 AED, which converts to 13,614 AED per square metre or 1266 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 4 bedroom two-storey villa located in Rosa, Arabian Ranches 2. Established house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 6 bathrooms, basement, kitchen, double garage, parking , living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, HVAC, private backyard garden, swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 7,200 ft2. Gross floor area of 4354 ft2 (405m2). Total cost 5,500,000 AED, which converts to 13,580 AED per square metre or 1263 AED per square foot.
A detached 3 bedroom two-storey villa located in Al Reem 2, Arabian Ranches. Established single row townhouse in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking , living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, HVAC, landscaped backyard garden, roof terrace, and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 3,341 ft2. Gross floor area of 3,153 ft2 (293m2). Total cost 3,200,000 AED, which converts to 10,921 AED per square metre or 1015 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3 bedroom two-storey villa located in Maeen, The Lakes. Established single row townhouse in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking , living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, HVAC, landscaped backyard garden, paved front yard, roof terrace, and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 2,521 ft2 (234m2). Total cost 3,800,000 AED, which converts to 16,239 AED per square metre or 1507 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 2 bedroom two-storey villa located in Springs 11, The Springs. Established house in good condition, with 2 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking , living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, roof terrace, and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 1858 ft2. Gross floor area of 1690 ft2 (157m2). Total cost 2,025,000 AED, which converts to 12,898 AED per square metre or 1198 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3 bedroom two-storey villa located in Springs 15, The Springs. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking , living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, roof terrace, private swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 4385 ft2. Gross floor area of 2258 ft2 (210m2). Total cost 3,185,000 AED, which converts to 15,167 AED per square metre or 1411 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 2 bedroom two-storey villa located in Springs 2, The Springs. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking , living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, roof terrace and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 1690 ft2 (157m2). Total cost 2,175,000 AED, which converts to 13,854 AED per square metre or 1287 AED per square foot.
A detached 6 bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Green Community West. Established house in good condition, with 6 bedrooms, 6 bathrooms, kitchen, triple garage, parking , living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, chauffeur’s room, HVAC, landscaped backyard garden, paved front yard, roof terrace, private swimming pool, Jacuzzi and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 13,758 ft2. Gross floor area of 7375 ft2 (685m2). Total cost 6,700,000 AED, which converts to 9,781 AED per square metre or 908 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3 bedroom two-storey villa located in Al Reem 3, Arabian Ranches. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, roof terrace and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 2745 ft2. Gross floor area of 2456 ft2 (228m2). Total cost 2,375,000 AED, which converts to 10,417 AED per square metre or 967 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 4 bedroom two-storey villa located in Palmera, Arabian Ranches. Established townhouse in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, roof terrace and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 4611 ft2. Gross floor area of 2936 ft2 (273m2). Total cost 3,690,000 AED, which converts to 13,516 AED per square metre or 1257 AED per square foot.
A detached 5-bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Lime Tree Valley, Jumeirah Gold Estates. Established estate house in good condition, with 5 bedrooms, 6 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, maids living quarters, chauffeurs room, HVAC, green backyard garden, golf course views, paved front yard, balcony, private swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 15,142 ft2. Gross floor area of 9,781 ft2 (909m2). Total cost 14,500,000 AED, which converts to 15,952 AED per square metre or 1482 AED per square foot.
A detached 4-bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Al Reem 1, Arabian Ranches. Established lakeside house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, maids living quarters, chauffeurs room, HVAC, green backyard garden, golf course views, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace, private temperature-controlled swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 2724 ft2 (253m2). Total cost 2,950,000 AED, which converts to 11,660 AED per square metre or 1083 AED per square foot.
A detached 4-bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Garden Home, Palm Jumeirah. Established house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, central rotunda, maids living quarters, chauffeurs room, HVAC, green backyard garden, sea views, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace, private temperature-controlled swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 6693 ft2. Gross floor area of 5000 ft2 (465m2). Total cost 16,500,000 AED, which converts to 35,484 AED per square metre or 3300 AED per square foot.
A detached 2-bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Springs 10, The Springs. Established house in good condition, with 2 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace, private temperature-controlled swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 3770 ft2. Gross floor area of 1794 ft2 (167m2). Total cost 2,275,000 AED, which converts to 13,623 AED per square metre or 1268 AED per square foot.
A detached 4-bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Palma Residences, Palm Jumeirah. Established house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 5 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace, private temperature-controlled swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 3956 ft2 (368m2). Total cost 6,500,000 AED, which converts to 17,663 AED per square metre or 1643 AED per square foot.
A detached 3-bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Springs 2, The Springs. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 1690 ft2 (157m2). Total cost 2,900,000 AED, which converts to 18,471 AED per square metre or 1716 AED per square foot.
A detached 3-bedroom two-storey luxury villa located in Springs 10, The Springs. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 3738 ft2. Gross floor area of 3032 ft2 (282m2). Total cost 3,950,000 AED, which converts to 14,007 AED per square metre or 1302 AED per square foot.
A detached 9-bedroom four-storey luxury villa located in Dubai Hills View, Dubai Hills Estate. Modern luxury mansion in good condition, with 9 bedrooms, 9 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, bar, lounge, billiards room, spa room, home theatre room, basement parking, home office, maids living quarters, HVAC, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, gold course view, skyline view, entertainment roof terrace, luxurious swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 35,000 ft2. Gross floor area of 31,000 ft2 (2880m2). Total cost 100,000,000 AED, which converts to 34,722 AED per square metre or 3226 AED per square foot.
A detached 8-bedroom four-storey luxury villa located in Sector E, Emirates Hills. Modern luxury mansion in good condition, with 8 bedrooms, 8 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, 2 x living room,2 x dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, 2 x study, 3 x majlis, bar, lounge, billiards room, sauna/steam/gym room, cinema room, elevator, basement parking, home office, maids living quarters, HVAC, CCTV security alarm system, audio systems in all rooms, smart lighting, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, lake view, skyline view, entertainment roof terrace, luxurious swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 18,553 ft2. Gross floor area of 16,000 ft2 (1486m2). Total cost 64,000,000 AED, which converts to 43,069 AED per square metre or 4000 AED per square foot.
A detached 6-bedroom four-storey luxury villa located in Signature Villa, Palm Jumeirah. Modern luxury mansion in good condition, with 6 bedrooms, 8 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, majlis, bar, lounge, billiards room, sauna/steam/gym room, cinema room, elevator, basement parking, home office, maids living quarters, HVAC, CCTV security alarm system, audio systems in all rooms, smart lighting, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, lake view, skyline view, entertainment roof terrace, luxurious swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 13,578 ft2. Gross floor area of 11,000 ft2 (1022m2). Total cost 56,995,000 AED, which converts to 55,768 AED per square metre or 5181 AED per square foot.
A detached 7-bedroom four-storey luxury villa located in Sector P, Emirate Hills. Modern luxury mansion in good condition, with 7 bedrooms, 7 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, dining, family room, pantry, storage room, laundry, power room, study, majlis, bar, lounge, billiards room, sauna/steam/gym room, cinema room, elevator, basement parking, home office, maids living quarters, HVAC, CCTV security alarm system, audio systems in all rooms, smart lighting, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, lake view, skyline view, entertainment roof terrace, luxurious swimming pool and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 17,340 ft2. Gross floor area of 11,300 ft2 (1050m2). Total cost 32,000,000 AED, which converts to 30,476 AED per square metre or 2832 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 2-bedroom two-storey villa located in Springs 7, The Springs. Modern house in good condition, with 2 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 2020 ft2. Gross floor area of 1690 ft2 (157m2). Total cost 1,725,000 AED, which converts to 10,897 AED per square metre or 1020 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 2-bedroom single-storey villa located in Springs 11, The Springs. Modern single row house in good condition, with 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, green backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls on large Plot/Lot size 1860 ft2. Gross floor area of 1690 ft2 (157m2). Total cost 1,449,999 AED, which converts to 9,554 AED per square metre or 888 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached one-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Avencia, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen Community) with 1 bedrooms, bathroom, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 744 ft2 (69m2). Total cost 585,000 AED, which converts to 8478 AED per square metre or 786 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Basswood, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen community) with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 1703 ft2 (158m2). Total cost 690,000 AED, which converts to 4367 AED per square metre or 405 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Vardon, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen community) with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in landscaped and serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 1770 ft2 (164m2). Total cost 700,000 AED, which converts to 4268 AED per square metre or 395 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Vardon, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen community) with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in landscaped and serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 1208 ft2 (112m2). Total cost 709,999 AED, which converts to 6339 AED per square metre or 587 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Mimosa, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen community) with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in landscaped and serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 1208 ft2 (112m2). Total cost 719,999 AED, which converts to 6428 AED per square metre or 596 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Albizia, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen community) with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in landscaped and serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 1696 ft2 (157m2). Total cost 729,500 AED, which converts to 4646 AED per square metre or 430 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached 3-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Vardon, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen community) with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in landscaped and serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 1700 ft2 (157m2). Total cost 729,999 AED, which converts to 4650 AED per square metre or 429 AED per square foot.
A semi-detached one-bedroom double-storey townhouse located in Vardon, DAMAC Hills 2, Dubai. Modern townhouse in good condition (Akoya Oxygen community) with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, parking, living room, pantry, storage room, laundry, study, backyard garden, paved front yard, balcony, roof terrace and boundary walls in landscaped and serviced community with public amenities. Gross floor area of 1200 ft2 (111m2). Total cost 502,000 AED, which converts to 4522 AED per square metre or 418 AED per square foot.
From the Tables and Charts below, it can be seen that the price of residential dwellings in the city and province of Dubai varies by type of property, the quality, size and age of the building.
Excluding extreme outliers (special cases), the cheapest dwelling you can buy in Dubai is a simplex apartment or townhouse with 1 to 3 bedrooms in a serviced community with public amenities, ranging from 4,268 to 8,478 AED per square metre.
Excluding extreme outliers, the most expensive dwelling you can buy in Dubai is a multi-bedroom luxury house with 4 to 9 bedrooms, ranging from 30,476 to 55,768 AED per square metre.
The price of semi-detached houses in rows, triplex and duplex houses in Dubai ranges from 9,554 to 16,239 AED per square metre.
Detached houses with front, side or backyard gardens are good for those who need more privacy and space. There are detached houses with at least 4 bedrooms, which range in price from 9,781 to 55,768 AED per square metre.
Luxury private houses, for example a 4 to 9 bedroom house will cost you 17,663 to 55,768 AED per square metre.
The overall price range of dwellings in Dubai is 4,268 to 55,768 AED per square metre, excluding special cases in the outlier range.
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Spain is a European country with long coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, sharing a border with France and Portugal. It is situated on approximately 195,360 square miles of land with a population of about 47.5 million people who speak Spanish. The capital city of Spain is Madrid. There are 50 provinces with about 8124 municipalities and 90 cities with more than 100,000 people.
House prices per square metre are shown in the Spanish currency, the Euro (EUR) as well as in other currencies such as the US Dollar and British Pound. A random survey of residential properties on sale in Spain shows the following:
The most popular places to buy a home are Almeria, Costa del Sol, Costa Blanca, Murcia, Benidorm and Alicante. The following are square metre prices of houses in the province of Almeria, Spain:
A detached 4 bedroom house located in Calle Clavel. Built in 2006, with living room, bedroom ensuite, 3 bedrooms sharing a bath, kitchen. The yard has a huge lawn garden as well as a portable reflective pool. Property is secured with boundary walls, situated in a serviced community with shops, malls, fuel service station and hospital. Gross floor area of 98m2, net floor area of 85m2. Plot/Lot size 146m2. Established house in good condition. Total cost 105,000 Euros, which converts to €1071 per square metre.
A 3 bedroom house located in Camino Real, Finana. A countryside house located in a farm on 6000m2 of land. With 3 large bedrooms, 2 bathrooms and storeroom. Established house in good condition. Gross floor area of 130m2. Total cost 105,000 Euros, which converts to €808 per square metre.
A detached 7 bedroom luxury two-storey house located in Calle Recta de Las Plataneras, Armuna. Established house in good condition, with 7 bedrooms and 4 bathrooms. Plot/lot size 10,000m2. Gross floor area of 1000m2. Total cost 775,000 Euros, which converts to €775 per square metre.
An 8 bedroom luxury two-storey house located in Paseo de Castaneda, Almeria. Established house in good condition, with 8 bedrooms , 4 bathrooms, living room, kitchen, garage, storeroom, swimming pool, garden and air conditioning. Plot/lot size 1500m2. Gross floor area of 330m2, net floor area 300m2. Total cost 494,900 Euros, which converts to €1499 per square metre.
A 6 bedroom luxury two-storey house located in Calle Cachucha, Velez Rubio, Almeria. Established house in good condition, with 6 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, storeroom and private garden. Gross floor area of 470m2, net floor are of 430m2. Total cost 249,000 Euros, which converts to €530 per square metre.
A detached 3 bedroom luxury two-storey house located in the suburbs of La Parata in Calle Gavilan 1, Pueblo Indalo Ventanicas-El Cantal, Mojacar. Built in 2011. Close to the sea in a picturesque hilly and mountainous region. Established villa in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, storeroom, HVAC, swimming pool and private garden on Plot/Lot size 600m2. Gross floor area of 176m2.Total cost 397,000 Euros, which converts to €2256 per square metre.
A detached 7 bedroom luxury four-storey house located in the suburbs of La Parata in Calle Terriza 49, Centro-Rambla, Almeria. Built in 1952. Established colonial style house in good condition, with 7 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, basement, solarium, laundry, living room, pantry, office, storeroom, HVAC, swimming pool , balconies, private garden and boundary walls on Plot/Lot size 220m2. Gross floor area of 315m2, net floor area of 314m2.Total cost 900,000 Euros, which converts to €2857 per square metre.
A 3 bedroom house located in Albox, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, living room, pantry, hobbyroom, workshop, storage room, HVAC, swimming pool , private garden and boundary walls on Plot/Lot size 2674m2. Gross floor area of 153m2. Total cost 179,900 Euros, which converts to €1176 per square metre.
A 4 bedroom house located in Albox, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Built in 2008. Established house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, living room, pantry, lounge office, storage room, HVAC, swimming pool , private lawn garden and boundary walls on Plot/Lot size 527m2. Gross floor area of 250m2. Total cost 230,000 Euros, which converts to €920 per square metre.
A semi-detached 4 bedroom three-storey house located in Avenida de Carlos lll, Puerto de Aguadulce, Roquestas de Mar. Built in 1990. Established house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, double garage, living room, pantry, storage room, balconies, HVAC, swimming pool , private green garden and boundary walls on Plot/Lot in the CBD. Gross floor area of 190m2, net floor area of 162m2. Total cost 269,900 Euros, which converts to €1421 per square metre.
A semi-detached 4 bedroom house located in Carratera de La Mojonera NN, Cortjos de Marin, Rquetas de Mar. Built in 1969. Established terraced house in need of renovations, with 4 bedrooms, 1 bathrooms, kitchen, living room, patio and small paved backyard on Plot/Lot in the CBD. Gross floor area of 70m2. Total cost 36,000 Euros, which converts to €514 per square metre.
A semi-detached 7 bedroom three-storey house located in Calle Republica Argentina, Ciudad Jardin, Tagarete, Almeria. Established terraced house in good condition, with 7 bedrooms, 5 bathrooms, kitchen, basement garage, elevator, living room, pantry, parking driveway, balconies, backyard patio garden, HVAC and boundary walls on Plot/Lot in the CBD. Gross floor area of 414m2. Total cost 665,000 Euros, which converts to €1606 per square metre.
A detached 4 bedroom house located in Los Gallardos, Levante, Almeria. Established house in good condition, with 4 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, living room, guesthouse, parking driveway, warehouse size 270m2, HVAC double garage , irrigation pond, well and boundary fence on large Plot/Lot in the CBD. Gross floor area of 130m2. Total cost 325,000 Euros, which converts to €2500 per square metre.
A 3 bedroom house located in Albox, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, swimming pool , private garden and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 2500m2. Gross floor area of 130m2. Total cost 210,000 Euros, which converts to €1615 per square metre.
A 3 bedroom house located in Albox, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Established house in good condition, with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, living room, utility, storage room, air conditioning, swimming pool , private garden and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 2500m2. Gross floor area of 142m2. Total cost 275,000 Euros, which converts to €1936 per square metre.
A 4 bedroom house located in Arboleas, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Built in 2003. Established renovated house in good condition in Los Garcias Development, with 4 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, living room, utility, storage room, air conditioning, swimming pool , private backyard garden, pergola and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 900m2. Gross floor area of 255m2, net floor area of 162m2. Total cost 329,950 Euros, which converts to €1294 per square metre.
A 3 bedroom house located in Albox, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Established renovated house in good condition in Lemon Tree Development (Aljambra) with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, alarm system, 11,000 litre water storage tanks, swimming pool , private backyard garden, pergola and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 2500m2. Gross floor area of 137m2, net floor area of 162m2. Total cost 209,900 Euros, which converts to €1532 per square metre.
A 3 bedroom house located in Arboleas, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Established house in good condition with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, sunroom, pergola, water tank, swimming pool , private backyard garden and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 720m2. Gross floor area of 140m2, net floor area of 104m2. Total cost 188,999 Euros, which converts to €1350 per square metre.
A 4 bedroom house located in Arboleas, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Built in 2008. Established house in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, sunroom, pergola, 2000 litre water tank, swimming pool , private backyard garden and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 642m2. Gross floor area of 213m2, net floor area of 172m2. Total cost 350,000 Euros, which converts to €1643 per square metre.
A detached 3 bedroom house located in Campo de Tabernas, Almeria. Built in 2008. Established farm house on hills in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 1 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, water tank, private backyard garden and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 326 hectares. Gross floor area of 365m2. Total cost 650,000 Euros, which converts to €1781 per square metre.
A detached 4 bedroom house located in Cantoria, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Built in 2008. Established farm house on hills in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, office area, storage room, HVAC, water tank, private garden and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 5031m2. Gross floor area of 207m2. Total cost 269,000 Euros, which converts to €1299.50 per square metre.
A detached 3 bedroom house located in Los Higuerales, Arboleas, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Built in 2006. Established house in good condition with 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden, swimming pool and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 610m2. Gross floor area of 154m2. Total cost 155,000 Euros, which converts to €1007 per square metre.
A detached 4 bedroom house located in Cantoria, Valle de Almanzora, Almeria. Established house in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden, swimming pool, barbeque and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 1227m2. Gross floor area of 168m2. Total cost 199,999 Euros, which converts to €1190 per square metre.
A detached 4 bedroom two-storey villa located in Desert Spring Gold, Cuevas del Almanzora, Almeria. Established house in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden, swimming pool, barbeque and boundary walls on large private Plot/Lot size 425m2. Gross floor area of 120m2. Total cost 290,000 Euros, which converts to €2417 per square metre.
A 2 bedroom two-storey duplex house in Calle Meteosat 8, San Juan de Los Terreros. Established duplex house in good condition with 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden, solarium, swimming pool and boundary walls on paved Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 102m2, net floor area of 92m2. Total cost 109,917 Euros, which converts to €1078 per square metre.
A 3 bedroom two-storey duplex house in Turre, Levante, Almeria. Established duplex house in good condition with 3 bedrooms, 3 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden, solarium, swimming pool and boundary walls on paved Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 190m2, net floor area of 147m2. Total cost 187,900 Euros, which converts to €989 per square metre.
A 2 bedroom two-storey duplex house in Plaza Residential C1 Playazo, Vera Playa Naturista, Vera. Built in 2000. Established duplex house in good condition with 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, balcony, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden, swimming pool and boundary walls on paved Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 78m2. Total cost 137,000 Euros, which converts to €1756 per square metre.
A 2 bedroom two-storey duplex house in Calle Jardineros, La Canada, Costacabana, Loma Cabrera, Almeria . Built in 1995. Established duplex house in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, balcony, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden and boundary walls on paved Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 112m2, net floor area of 90m2. Total cost 126,000 Euros, which converts to €1125 per square metre.
A 4 bedroom two-storey duplex house in Plaza de La Luz, El Ejido . Built in 1995. Established duplex house in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, balcony, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden and boundary walls on paved Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 90m2. Total cost 165,000 Euros, which converts to €1833 per square metre.
A 4 bedroom three-storey duplex house in Almerimar, El Ejido, El Ejido . Built in 2008. Established duplex house with lift in good condition with 4 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, balcony, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden, swimming pool and boundary walls on paved Plot/Lot. Gross floor area of 140m2, net floor area of 130m2. Total cost 298,794 Euros, which converts to €2134 per square metre.
A 2 bedroom bungalow in San Pedro, Pinatar. Established bungalow in good condition with 2 bedrooms, 1 bathrooms, kitchen, carport, living room, balcony, utility, storage room, HVAC, private garden , solarium and boundary walls on paved Plot/Lot size 95m2. Gross floor area of 69m2. Total cost 99,900 Euros, which converts to €1448 per square metre.
From the Tables and Charts below, it can be seen that the price of residential dwellings in the province of Almeria in Spain varies by type of property, the quality, size and age of the building.
Excluding extreme outliers (special cases), the cheapest dwelling you can buy in Spain is a simplex apartment, ranging from 514 to 2857 euros per square metre.
Excluding extreme outliers, the most expensive dwelling you can buy in Spain is a multi-bedroom house with 4 to 7 bedrooms, ranging from 2,134 to 2,857 euros per square metre.
The price of duplex houses in Spain ranges from 989 to 2,134 euros per square metre.
Detached houses with front, side or backyard gardens are good for those who need more privacy and space. There are detached houses with at least 3 bedrooms, which range in price from 530 to 2,857 euros per square metre.
Luxury private houses, for example a 7 and 8 bedroom house will cost you 1,499 to 2,857 euros per square metre.
The overall price range of dwellings in Spain is 514 to 2,857 euros per square metre, excluding special cases in the outlier range.
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The average of numbers in a dataset is also known as the mean value. A dataset is a range of values measured, recorded or collected through a survey. The mean value of the dataset is calculated by adding up all the measured values (Summation), and then dividing the total by the number of values in the range. The formula for calculating the average can thus be derived:
Let Av be the average, and ∑x be the summation of x, and N be the number of values in the range. Therefore,
Av = Average.
∑x = Summation of X.
X = Value in the range (x1, x2, x3, x4…….)
N = Number of values in the range.
Av = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4…)/N
The average of a dataset is the mean value which is representative of the dataset (sample or population). The average value is used for rough estimating purposes. The following are some of real life examples whereby the mean value is calculated in a statistical survey:
There are 8 tomatoes in a pack weighing 1kg and priced at $26.99. Find the average weight and price of each tomato?
Solution:
Using ratios – If 8 tomatoes weigh 1000g, 1 tomato must be less than 1000g, therefore,
8 tomatoes = 1000g
1 tomato = X
Setting up a proportional equation,
>> X = (1 * 1000)/8
>> X = 125g
Answer: Each tomato weighs 125g
Calculating the price: If 8 tomatoes cost $26.99, then one tomato costs less. Therefore,
8 tomatoes = $26.99
1 tomato = X
Setting up a proportional equation,
>> X = (1 * $26.99)/8
>> X = $3.37
Answer: Each tomato costs $3.37.
Alternatively, we can use the weight to calculate the price of each tomato:
1000g = $26.99
125g = X
X = (125 * $26.99)/1000
X = $3.37
Answer : Each tomato costs $3.37.
In a class of 10 students, the following scores were obtained in the end of year biology examinations – 54, 60, 48, 72, 80, 55, 65, 50, 68, 75. Calculate the class average score?
Solution:
Using the formula Av = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4…)/N
>> Av = (54 + 60 + 48 + 72 + 80 + 55 + 65 + 50 +68 + 75)/10
>> Av = (627)/10
>> Av = 62.7
Answer: The class average score is 62.7
The following hourly temperature readings were taken over 24 hours at a weather station :
21, 21.6, 21.9, 22.4, 22.7, 22.8, 23.1, 23.4, 23.7, 24, 24.6, 25.2,
25.2, 25.9, 25.8, 25.5, 25.9, 26.2, 26.5, 26.8, 27, 27.2, 27.8, 28
Find the mean daily temperature?
Solution:
Using the formula Av = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4…)/N
>> Av = (21 + 21.6 + 21.9 + 22.4 + 22.7 + 22.8…….27.8 + 28)/24
>> Av = (594.2)/24
>> Av = 24.76
Answer: The mean daily temperature is 24.76 degrees Celsius.
In 2011, the monthly average rainfall in the Philippines was recorded as follows:
January – 27.9mm
February – 28.5mm
March -22.1mm
April – 20.7mm
May – 44.8mm
June – 51.2mm
July – 59.4mm
August – 44.9mm
September – 52.4mm
October – 50.1mm
November – 50.7mm
December – 44.4mm
Find the average annual rainfall in 2011?
Solution:
Using the formula Av = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4…)/N
>> Av = (27.9 + 28.5 + 22.1 + 20.7 + 44.8…….50.7 + 44.4)/12
>> Av = (497.1)/12
>> Av = 41.43
Answer: The average annual rainfall was 41.43mm in 2011.
The ENR monthly building cost index in the USA (2019) is shown below:
January – 6107
February – 6108
March – 6110
April – 6110
May – 6112
June – 6118
July – 6131
August – 6147
September – 6147
October – 6169
November – 6179
December – 6199
Find the average annual building cost index?
Solution:
Using the formula Av = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4…)/N
>> Av = (6107 + 6108 + 6110 + 6110 + 6112…….6179 + 6199)/12
>> Av = (73637)/12
>> Av = 6136.4
Answer: The average annual building cost index is 6136.4
In five annual competitions, an athlete took the following times to run a 200m sprint – 22.5, 23, 22.2, 23.1 and 22.7 seconds. What is the athlete’s average speed per second?
Solution:
Using the formula Av = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4…)/N
>> Av = (22.5 + 23 + 22.2 + 23.1 + 22.7)/5
>> Av = (113.5)/5
>> Av = 22.7 seconds
The athlete’s average finishing time is 22.7 seconds.
The athlete’s average speed per second is >> 200m/22.7 seconds = 8.81 m/s.
A fast food outlet sells burgers at $2.99 each. The following orders were made in a particular week:
Sunday – 700
Monday – 900
Tuesday – 860
Wednesday – 875
Thursday – 800
Friday – 750
Saturday – 915
Calculate the average daily sales revenue?
Solution:
Using the formula Av = (x1 + x2 + x3 + x4…)/N
>> Av = (700 + 900 + 860 + 875 + 800 + 750 + 915)/7
>> Av = (5800)/7
>> Av = 828.57 To the nearest whole number >> 829 burgers.
The average number of burgers sold in a day is 829.
The average daily sales revenue is >> 829 x $2.99 per burger = $2478.71
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The percentage difference also known as the percentage increase or decrease is a common calculation in maths, statistics, physics, business, commerce, economics and many other fields. It is used to indicate the change in the values of a particular measurement over a certain period of time. The delta symbol Δx is used to represent a change in quantity or values.
The following are some of the measurements whereby the percentage increase or decrease is applied or calculated:
Physics:
Change in speed (acceleration)
Change in mass
Change in pressure
Change in energy
Change in temperature
Change in volume
Change in density
Change in force
Change in momentum
Business:
Change in monthly sales volumes
Change in monthly revenue
Change in monthly profit
Change in monthly costs
Economics and Commerce:
Change in annual GDP
Change in monthly, quarterly and annual export values
Change in monthly, quarterly and annual import values
Change in median income
Change in median rent
Change in the cost of living index
Change in the consumer price index
Population Studies:
Change in national population
Change in city population
Change in male population
Change in female population
Change in demographics
Construction:
Change in the construction cost index
Change in the material price index
Change in median house prices
Change in number of monthly, quarterly and annual building permits
Change in construction output volumes
Change in construction tender price index
Change in construction input price index
Change in construction output price index
As you can see, the percentage difference is calculated and used in many fields whereby statistics and measurements are recorded.
In order to calculate a percentage increase, you must have two values measured over a time range, for example, let’s say you are measuring daily temperature. Recordings were taken in the morning, afternoon and night showing 25C°, 28C° and 23C° respectively. Calculate the percentage change in temperature between the morning and afternoon readings?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 25C°, x2 = 28C°
>> x3 = (28 – 25)/25)*100
>> x3 = (3/25)*100
>> x3 = 12%
Answer: The percentage change is Δx = 12%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is positive, which is a percentage increase.
Calculate the percentage change in temperature between the afternoon and night readings?
Solution:
Using the percentage formula Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions:
>> x1 = 28C°, and x2 = 23C°
>> Δx = (23 – 28/28) * 100
>> Δx = (-5/28) * 100
>> Δx = -17.86%
Answer: The percentage change is Δx = -17.86%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is negative, which is a percentage decrease.
A car is travelling at 40km/hr, it then accelerates to 70km/hr. What is the percentage increase in speed?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 40km/hr, x2 = 70km/hr
>> x3 = (70 – 40)/40)*100
>> x3 = (30/40)*100
>> x3 = 75
Answer: The percentage change in speed is Δx = 75%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is positive, which is a percentage increase.
A car is travelling at 120km/hr, it then decelerates to 85km/hr. By what percent did the speed decrease?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 120km/hr, x2 = 85km/hr
>> x3 = (85 – 120)/120)*100
>> x3 = (-35/120)*100
>> x3 = -29.17%
Answer: The percentage change in speed is Δx = -29.17%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is negative, which is a percentage decrease.
Wood is a material which absorbs and loses moisture depending on the temperature and relative humidity. A piece of wood weighs 750g, the following morning its swollen weight was 800g. What is the percentage increase in its weight and how much moisture did it gain?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 750g, x2 = 800g
>> x3 = (800 – 750)/750)*100
>> x3 = (100/750)*100
>> x3 = 13
Answer: The percentage change in weight is Δx = 13%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is positive, which is a percentage increase.
The wood gained (800 – 750) = 50g of moisture.
Wood is a material which absorbs and loses moisture depending on the temperature and relative humidity. A piece of wood weighs 1000g, the following morning its shrunken weight was 940g. By what percent did its weight decrease and how much moisture did it lose?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 1000g, x2 = 940g
>> x3 = (940 – 1000)/1000)*100
>> x3 = (-60/1000)*100
>> x3 = -6%
Answer: The percentage change in weight is Δx = -6%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is negative, which is a percentage decrease.
The wood lost (1000 – 940) = 60g of moisture.
A jewellery store sold 60 necklaces in November and 105 necklaces in December. Calculate the percentage increase in sales volume?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 60 necklaces, x2 = 105 necklaces
>> x3 = (105 – 60)/60)*100
>> x3 = (45/60)*100
>> x3 = 75%
Answer: The percentage change in sales volume is Δx = 75%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is positive, which is a percentage increase.
A jewellery store sold 105 necklaces in December and 33 necklaces in January of the New Year. Calculate the percentage decline in sales volume?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 105 necklaces, x2 = 33 necklaces
>> x3 = (33 – 105)/105)*100
>> x3 = (-72/105)*100
>> x3 = -68.57%
Answer: The percentage change in sales volume is Δx = -68.57%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is negative, which is a percentage decrease.
A computer shop sold 112 USB bracelets in May and 140 USB bracelets in June. If each bracelet was priced at $6.13 in May and a 10% promotional discount was offered in June, calculate the percentage change in the sales revenue?
Solution:
Step 1
Calculate the monthly sales revenue:
May >> 112 x $6.13 = $686.56
June >> 140 x $6.13 = $858.20
Calculate June Discount >> 10% of $858.20 = (10/100)*$858.20 = $85.82
Therefore, the monthly sales in June were >> $858.20 – $85.82 = $772.38
Step 2
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = $686.56, x2 = $772.38
>> x3 = (772.38 – 686.56)/686.56)*100
>> x3 = (85.82/686.56)*100
>> x3 = 12.5%
Answer: The percentage change in sales revenue is Δx = 12.5%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is positive, which is a percentage increase.
An ISP Telecom company increased the cost of its prepaid unlimited monthly data plan from $65 to $75 a month. By what percentage was the price increased?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = $65, x2 = $75
>> x3 = (75 – 65)/65)*100
>> x3 = (10/65)*100
>> x3 = 15.38%
Answer: The percentage change in the price of monthly data is Δx = 15.38%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is positive, which is a percentage increase.
The population of New York City declined from 8,469,153 in 2016 to 8,336,817 people in 2018. Calculate the percentage decline in population over this period?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 8,469,153 people, x2 = 8,336,817 people
>> x3 = (8,336,817 – 8,469,153)/8,469,153)*100
>> x3 = (-132,336/8,469,153)*100
>> x3 = (-0.0156)*100
>> x3 = -1.56%
Answer: The percentage change in the population was Δx = -1.56%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is negative, which is a percentage decrease.
The Construction Tender Price Index (TPI) in the city of Dublin was 160.5 in the second quarter of 2020 and 152.7 in the second quarter of 2019. Calculate the percentage increase in the tender price index over this period?
Solution:
Set up a logical equation. Let x1 be the first reading and x2 be the second reading. Let x3 be the difference between the readings. The delta symbol Δ is used to represent a change in quantity. Therefore Δx = x3. The change in values in our example will be represented by Δx.
The percentage change formula is Δx = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Therefore,
>> x2 – x1 = x3
>> Δx = x3
>> x3 = (x2 – x1/x1) * 100
Making substitutions: x1 = 152.7, x2 = 160.5
>> x3 = (160.5 – 152.7)/152.7)*100
>> x3 = (7.8/152.7)*100
>> x3 = 5.1%
Answer: The percentage change in the tender price index was Δx = 5.1%
**Note that in this example, the percentage change is positive, which is a percentage increase.
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CONTENTS:
A percentage is a fraction which is converted to decimals and then multiplied by 100. The components of a fraction are the numerator and denominator, which are the top number divided by the bottom number respectively. In order to convert a fraction to a percentage, you have to multiply the top and bottom number by the same factor which converts the denominator to 100.
For example, let’s convert ¼ to a percentage. Using the two methods already explained above:
Method 1
Step 1 – Convert ¼ to decimals >> ¼ = 0.25
Step 2 – Multiply 0.25 by 100 >> 0.25 x 100 = 25%
Answer – 25% is the answer.
Method 2
Step 1 – We have the fraction (¼). The numerator is 1 and the denominator is 4.
Step 2 – Convert the denominator to 100. Using ratios, 4 is equivalent to 100
Step 3 – Convert the numerator to X (unknown value). Using ratios, 1 is equivalent to X
Step 4 – Using proportions to find the value of X,
If 4 = 100, then 1 must be less than 100, therefore to find X, we set up the following proportional equation:
4 =100
1= X
X = (1 x 100)/4
X = 25
Answer – 25% is the answer.
Using the proportional equation which we derived much earlier, we can make substitutions to come up with a general equation that can be used to calculate unknown values.
The specific proportional equation X = (1 x 100)/4 was used to convert the fraction (1/4) into a percentage. We can derive a general proportional equation by making substitutions:
X = (N * 100)/D,
Where X = percentage
N=numerator
D=denominator.
The equation can be re-arranged as you wish:
X = (N/D)*100
(N/D) is the fraction you want to convert to a percentage.
Let’s use the above equation to solve the following problems:
Problems
Express the fraction 3/5 as a percentage.
Solution – From the equation X=(N/D)*100, N=3 and D=5, therefore X=(3/5)*100 = 60%
Express the fraction 1/3 as a percentage.
Solution – From the equation X=(N/D)*100, N=1 and D=3, therefore X=(1/3)*100 = 33%
How To Find the Percentage of a Whole Number?
Previously we talked about fractions which are expressed as (N/D) where N=numerator, and D=denominator. The opposite of fractions are whole numbers. A whole number only contains a numerator and its denominator is always 1. For example 5/1 = 5, 10/1 = 10, 13/1 = 13 and 25/1 = 25.
To find the percentage of a whole number, we should first convert the percentage to a fraction, then multiply the fraction by the whole number as shown in the examples below:
Problem 1
What is 3% of 35?
Step1 – Convert 3% to a fraction >> 3/100
Step 2 – Multiply the fraction by the whole number >> (3/100)*35
>> (3/100)*35
>> (3/20)*7
>> (21/20) = 1.05
Answer: 3% of 35 = 1.05
The specific equation in this case is (3/100)*35=1.05
We can convert this equation to a general equation by substituting values as shown below:
(N/D)*W=P, where N=numerator, D=denominator, W=whole number and P=dividend of whole number.
We can use this specific formula to find the percentage of any whole number:
Problem 2
What is 75% of 50?
Using the formula (N/D)*W=P,
P=(N/D)*W
Convert 75% to a fraction >> 75%=75/100,
P=(75/100)*50
>> P=(3/4)*50
>> P=37.5
Answer: 75% of 50 = 37.5
P=(N/D)*W, where N=numerator, D=denominator, W=whole number and P=dividend of whole number.
We can use the same formula P=(N/D)*W to find the unknown percentage of two numbers.
Problem 1
What percent of 80 is 20?
Step 1 – Express the numbers as fractions >> 20/80
Step 2 – Multiply the fraction by 100 >> (20/80)*100 = (2/8)*100 = (1/4)*100 = 25
Answer: 25%
Alternatively, we can use the formula P=(N/D)*W,
W=80,
P=20,
Therefore we need to find (N/D),
D=100,
Making substitutions, the formula becomes 20=(N/100)*80,
>> 20=(N/100)*80
>> 20=(N/10)*8
>> 20=(N/5)*4
Dividing both sides by 4:
>> 5= N/5
Multiplying both sides by 5:
>> 25 = N,
Therefore N=25
Answer: 20 expressed as a percentage of 80 is 25%
P=(N/D)*W, where N=numerator, D=denominator, W=whole number and P=dividend of whole number.
This same formula can be used to find the whole number from a percentage.
Problem 1
12 is 5% of what number?
Step 1 – Express the percentage as a fraction 5% >> 5/100
Step 2 – W is the unknown whole number, P= 12, N=5 and D=100
Step 3 – Make substitutions inside the formula P=(N/D)*W >> 12=(5/100)*W
12 = (5/100)*W
12 = (1/20)*W
W = 12/(1/20)
W = 12*20
W = 240
Answer: 12 is 5% of 240.
Alternatively, you can set up a logical equation to solve X the unknown number:
5% of X = 12
Therefore,
>> (5/100)*X = 12
>> (1/20)*X = 12
>> X/20 = 12
Multiplying both sides by 20:
>> X = 240.
Answer: 12 is 5% of 240.
Percentages are found and used in a wide variety of fields such as mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, food processing, engineering, technology, business, finance, economics, marketing, administration, accounting, programming, meteorology, sports, politics and construction. The examples below illustrate the importance of percentages in our daily life.
According to a website traffic analysis tool, 20.42% of visitors on Tiktok are from the United States, 7.23% are from the Philippines, 5.94% are from the Vietnam, 5% are from Mexico and 4.68% are from Russia. The rest are from other countries. Find the percentage of visitors from other countries?
Calculations:
Step 1 – Add 20.42 + 7.23 + 5.94 + 5 + 4.68 = 43.27%
Step 2 – Subtract the sum from 100% >> 100-43.27 = 56.73%
Answer: 56.73% of visitors are from other countries.
Question 2:
If Tiktok gets 1.34 billion visitors a month, how many visitors are from the USA?
Calculations:
20.42% of visitors are from the USA, so 20.42% of 1,340,000,000 = 0.2042 x 1.340,000,000 = 273,628,000
Answer: 273,628,000 visitors are from the USA.
In the US presidential elections held On 7 November 2012, Barack Obama got 59,631,249 popular votes representing 50% of all votes and Mitt Romney got 57,000,976 votes representing 48% of all votes.
Calculations:
Step 1 – Add 50 + 48 = 98%
Step 2 – Subtract the total from 100% >> 100 – 98 = 2%
Answer: 2% of voters didn’t vote for either candidate.
Calculations:
Step 1 – Create an equation from known and unknown values. Let X be the total number of voters >> 59,631,249 + 57,000,976 = 98% of X >> 116,632,225 = 0.98X
Step 2 – Solve for X >> 0.98X = 116,632,225
>> X = 116,632,225/0.98
>> X = 119,012,475
Answer: The total number of voters was 119,012,475
A laptop battery is discharging (losing energy or voltage) at a constant rate, with 2 hrs 45min (97%) of energy remaining. What will be the percentage of energy remaining after 1 hour?
Calculations:
Step 1 – Convert the time to minutes, thus >> 2 hrs 45 min = 165 min and 1 hour = 60 minutes.
Step 2 – To find the battery time (energy) remaining after 1 hour >> 165 – 60 = 105 minutes.
Step 3 – Using ratios >> 165 min is equivalent to 97% of energy remaining, 105 minutes is equivalent to X% of energy remaining.
If 165 min = 97%, then 105 min must be less than 97%, therefore to find X, we set up the following proportional equation:
165 = 97%
105 = X
X = (105 x 97)/165
X = 10185/165
X = 61.73
Answer – 61.73% will be the percentage of energy remaining after 1 hour.
Method 2:
Let y be the total time it takes to discharge the battery to zero capacity,
97% of y = 165 min
0.97y=165
y = 165/0.97
y = 170.1
Therefore, the percentage of energy remaining after 1 hour is:
105 /170.1 = 0.6173
Converting the decimals to percentage >> 0.6173 x 100 = 61.73%
Answer – 61.73%
The full size of a picture is 350×350 pixels when zoomed to 100%. What is the size of the picture when zoomed to 40%?
Method 1:
40% of 350 >> 0.4 x 350 = 140
Answer: the size of the picture is 140 x 140 pixels when zoomed to 40%
Method 2:
Using ratios >> 100% is equivalent to 350 pixels, and 40% is equivalent to X%.
If 100% = 350 pixels, then 40% must be less than 40%, therefore to find X, we set up the following proportional equation:
100% = 350
40% = X
X = (40 x 350)/100
X = 14000/100
X = 140
Answer – the size of the picture is 140 x 140 pixels when zoomed to 40%.
500g of margarine contains 80% of vegetable fats and oils, and 16.7% of water. The rest of the ingredients are salt, milk, whey powder, emulsifiers, lecithin, preservatives, vitamins, citric acid, flavouring and colorants.
What is the percentage of other ingredients?
Solution:
x = Amount of fats and oils in margarine.
y = Amount of water in margarine.
z = Amount of other ingredients
t = Total amount
x + y + z = t
Making substitutions:
>> 80 + 16.7 + y = 100
>> 96.7 + y = 100
>> y = 100 – 96.7 = 33
Answer: the percentage of other ingredients is 33%
What is the mass of other ingredients in grams?
Solution:
>> x = 80% of 500g = 0.80 x 500g = 400g
>> y = 16.7% of 500g = 0.167 x 500g = 83.5g
>> x + y = 483.5g
>> t = 500g
Therefore,
>> z = t – (x + y)
>> z = 500 – 483.5 = 16.5g
>> z = 16.5g
Answer: the mass of other ingredients is 16.5g
What is the mass of vegetables and oils in the margarine?
Solution:
>> x = 80% of 500g = 0.80 x 500g = 400g
Answer: the mass of vegetables and oils is 400g.
What is the mass of water in the margarine?
Solution:
>> y = 16.7% of 500g = 0.167 x 500g = 83.5g
Answer: the mass of water is 83.5g.
The full size of a Noxplayer setup file is 499MB. If you are downloading the file at a constant internet speed, what percentage of the file is 10.6MB?
Solution:
Method 1:
X% of 499MB = 10.6MB
>> (X/100)*499 = 10.6MB
Multiplying both sides by 100:
>> 499x = 1060
>> x = 1060/499
>> x = 2.12
Answer: 2.12% of the file is 10.6MB
Method 2:
Using ratios >> 100% is equivalent to 499MB,and X% is equivalent to 10.6MB.
If 100% = 499MB, then X% is less than 100%, therefore to find X, we set up the following proportional equation:
100% = 499
X% = 10.6
X = (10.6 x 100)/499
X = 2.12
Answer: 2.12% of the file is 10.6MB
A man went to the shops to buy some groceries. His receipt shows a total sum of $154.33 after tax . Value Added Tax (VAT) at 15% was charged on $66.37 worth of groceries. Calculate the amount of VAT and subtotal before tax?
Solution:
VAT = 15% of $66.37 = 0.15 x $66.37 = $9.96
Subtotal before tax >> $154.33 – $9.96 = $144.37
The prescribed mix for concrete class B (15MPa) is 1:3:5 representing cement, sand and gravel. The quantity of concrete cast is 4.89m3. Calculate the percentage and quantity of sand in the concrete?
Solution:
The total of the ratio 1:3:5 = 9,
Therefore (3/9) x 100 = 33%
The percentage of sand in the mix is 33%
33% of 4.89m3 = 0.33 x 4.89 = 1.69m3
The quantity of sand in the mix is 1.69m3
If 10 db is twice the loudness, by how much percent was the volume increased if the sound is 60 db?
Solution:
>> Twice the loudness is equivalent to (2/1) x 100 = 200%
>> Therefore 10 db = 200% increase
Using ratios: If 10 db = 200%, then 60 db is more than 200%,
Setting up a proportional equation:
10 db = 200%
60 db = X%
X = (60/10) x 200 =1200% increase
Answer: The volume was increased by 1200%
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Afghanistan also known as IEA is a country situated in the area between South and Central Asia on approximately 252,072 square miles of land. Its population of about 40 million people speaks Pashto and Persian Dari. The capital city of Afghanistan is Kabul. There are 34 provinces with about 165 municipalities and 14 major cities.
House prices per square metre are shown in the Afghan currency, the Afghani (AFN) as well as in foreign currencies such as the US Dollar in many cases. A random survey of residential properties on sale in Afghanistan shows the following:
A detached, free-standing 7-bedroom house with 4 bathrooms, driveway, 2 garages and garden. Situated in Parwan 3, Kabul. Built in 1397. Gross floor area of 200m2, total price $29,000 USD, which converts to $145 USD per square metre.
A semi-detached 6-bedroom house with 1 bathroom, 1 garage, driveway parking and garden. Situated in Ghambar Crossroads in Kabul. Built in 2019. Gross floor area of 200m2, total price $69,000 USD, which converts to $345 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom house with 2 bathrooms , 2 garages and car parking. Situated in Afshar Silo, Bat Ahoo Alley, Kabul. Gross floor area of 176m2, total price 6,900,000 Afghanis, which converts to 39,205 AFN per square metre.
A large 11-bedroom house with 6 bathrooms, 4 garages, driveway and garden / green landscaping. Situated in Karte Parwan, Kabul. Gross floor area of 500m2, total price $490,000 USD, which converts to $980 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom house with 2 bathrooms, 1 garage and parking in Khajeh Baghra, Kabul. Gross floor area of 150m2, total price 1,900,000 Afghanis, which converts to 12,667 AFN per square metre.
A 2-bedroom apartment with 3 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, parking and garden including security CCTV camera, lift, inbuilt cupboards, HVAC and fire protection systems. Situated in Arya Town, Kabul. Built in 2010. Gross floor area of 382m2, total price $173,000, which converts to $453 USD per square metre.
A 5-bedroom apartment with 4 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, parking, and security CCTV camera. Situated in Gerawi, Shar E Naw. Gross floor area of 280m2, total price $50,000 USD, which converts to $179 USD per square metre.
A luxury 2-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage and parking. Situated in Khair Khana, Golayee Park, Kabul. Built in 2020. Gross floor area of 70m2, total price $26,000 USD, which converts to $371 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, central heating and parking. Situated in Project Taimani, Kabul. Gross floor area of 103m2, total price $32,500 USD, which converts to $316 USD per square metre.
A 2-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, central heating and parking. Situated in Street 4 Taimani Project, Kabul. Gross floor area of 75m2, total price $22,000 USD, which converts to $293 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, central heating, security CCTV camera and parking. Situated in Taimani Project, Kabul. Built in 2019. Gross floor area of 110m2, total price $38,000 USD, which converts to $345 USD per square metre.
A luxury 4-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, central heating, security CCTV camera and parking. Situated in Makrorayan 4, Azizi Plaza, Kabul. Gross floor area of 105m2, total price $125,000 USD, which converts to $1190 USD per square metre.
A luxury VIP 4-bedroom apartment with 3 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, central heating, security CCTV camera, built-in cupboards and parking. Situated in Jamal Mina, Karte Chahar, Kabul. Gross floor area of 180m2, total price $134,000 USD, which converts to $744 USD per square metre.
A luxury 4-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, balcony, 1 garage, central heating and parking. Located in Karte Seh, close to Alawdin Park, Kabul. Built in 2020. Gross floor area of 165m2, total price $99,000 USD, which converts to $600 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, balcony, built-in cupboards, central heating and parking. Located in Karte Se, close to Alawdin Park, Kabul. Built in 2020. Gross floor area of 112m2, total price $79,000 USD, which converts to $705 USD per square metre.
Apartments:
A 2-bedroom apartment with 1 bathroom, balcony, 1 garage and hot water tank. Located in Shahre Naow, Kabul. Gross floor area of 72m2, total price $45,000 USD, which converts to $625 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 3 bathrooms, kitchen, balcony and roof deck. Located in Athad, Phaz Sewmshahrsk, Kaream Mashed. Gross floor area of 135m2, total price $48,000 USD, which converts to $356 USD per square metre.
A big luxury 4-storey house with 16 rooms, 12 bathrooms, 4 kitchens, 4 main halls, balconies, roof deck and 4 garages. The property has 4 rooms/3 toilets per floor. Located in District 13, Dasht Barche, near Tajikan Road, Kabul. Gross floor area of 400m2, total price $250,000 USD, which converts to $625 USD per square metre.
A big luxury 4-storey house with 12 rooms, 12 bathrooms, 4 kitchens, main hall, balconies, roof deck and garage. The property has 3 rooms/3 toilets per floor. Located in District Shahrak Rasol Akrom, Kabul. Gross floor area of 300m2, total price $170,000 USD, which converts to $567 USD per square metre.
A modern house with 18 rooms, 12 bathrooms, 6 kitchens, 6 main halls, balconies, roof deck, parking and private front yard. Located in 17 Sarak Qabr Marshal Faheam, Kabul. Gross floor area of 400m2, total price $200,000 USD, which converts to $500 USD per square metre.
A modern 4-storey apartment with 15 rooms, 12 bathrooms, 6 kitchens, 6 main halls, balconies, roof deck and front yard. Located in Shaheed Mazari Road, Kabul. Gross floor area of 220m2, on lot/plot size 360m2. Total price $170,000 USD, which converts to $472 USD per square metre.
A modern apartment with 9 rooms, 9 bathrooms, 3 kitchens, 3 main halls, roof deck, front yard. Located in District 13, Kabul. Gross floor area of 120m2, on lot/plot size 205m2. Total price $87,000 USD, which converts to $725 USD per square metre.
A 2-bedroom apartment with bathroom, kitchen, balcony, roof deck and front yard. Located in Motar Froshi Road, Kabul near Hewad Unversity. Gross floor area of 63m2, total price $25,000 USD, which converts to $397 USD per square metre.
A modern house with 11 rooms, 7 bathrooms, 3 kitchens, balconies, roof deck and front yard. Located in Sark Medan Hawae, Wazarat Dahkla. Gross floor area of 300m2, total price $135,000 USD, which converts to $450 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with bathroom, kitchen, main hall, garage, balconies, roof deck and front yard. Located in District 5, Khoshal Khan Mena Sarak Shaheed Sherwale Wardak. Gross floor area of 120m2, total price $38,000, which converts to $317 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, garage, kitchen, 3 balconies. Located in Sark Darlaman. Gross floor area of 150m2, total price $31,000, which converts to $207 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 3 bathrooms, garage, kitchen, balcony, roof deck and front yard. Located in Charahi Qambar Sarak Familia. Gross floor area of 117m2, total price $43,000 USD, which converts to $368 USD per square metre.
A 2-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, balcony. Located in Charahi Qambar Sarak Familia. Gross floor area of 77m2, total price $28,000 USD, which converts to $364 USD per square metre.
A 4-bedroom apartment with 3 bathrooms, kitchen, garage and balcony. Located in Charahi Qambar Sarak Familia. Gross floor area of 157m2, total price $57,000 USD, which converts to $363 USD per square metres.
A 2-bedroom apartment with bathroom, garage, kitchen, balcony and central heating. Located in District 5, near Abuzar Ghaffari School, Family Road, Ghambar Crossroads in Kabul. Gross floor area of 77m2. Total price $28,000 USD, which converts to $364 USD per square metre.
House 1
3 rooms, 121 square metres.
House 4
3 rooms, 117m2
2 rooms, 77m2
House 6
4 rooms, 157m2
3 rooms, 117m2
2 rooms, 77m2
Total price per square metre for all apartments: $390/m2
A 3-bedroom apartment with bathroom, kitchen, balcony and garage. Located in Pule Sarkh Nazdik Park Halodin. Gross floor area of 100m2, total price $40,000, which converts to $400 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage and balcony. Located in Sark Bostan Kotal Kherkhana Nahia, Kabul. Gross floor area of 120m2, total price $26,500 USD, which converts to $221 USD per square metre.
A 2-bedroom apartment with bathroom, kitchen and balcony. Located in Qasba Kherkhana. Gross floor area of 63m2, total price $24,000 USD, which converts to $381 USD per square metre.
An apartment with more than 5+ rooms, 4 bathrooms, garage and balconies. Located in Timany. Gross floor area of 200m2, total price $80,000 USD, which converts to $400 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, garage and balconies. Located in District 5, near Abuzar Ghaffari School, Family Road, Ghambar Crossroads in Kabul. Gross floor area of 117m2, total price $46,000 USD, which converts to $393 USD per square metre.
A 4-bedroom apartment with 3 bathrooms and balconies. Located in District 5, near Abuzar Ghaffari School, Family Road, Ghambar Crossroads in Kabul. Gross floor area of 157m2, total price $62,000 USD, which converts to $395 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, main hall and balconies. Located in Khir Khana Street, Haje Chaman. Gross floor area of 100m2, total price $38,000 USD, which converts to $380 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, main hall and balconies. Located in Khir Khana Sarak Danesh. Gross floor area of 130m2, total price $40,000 USD, which converts to $308 USD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, main hall and balconies. Located in Sarak 3 Prouje Tymane. Gross floor area of 110m2, total price $45,000 USD, which converts to $409 USD per square metre.
A 4-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms, kitchen, garage, main hall and balconies. Located in Sarak 3 Proje Tymane. Gross floor area of 135m2, total price $65,000 USD, which converts to $481 USD per square metre.
A 9-bedroom apartment with 5 bathrooms, 3 kitchens, garage, main hall and balconies. Located in Baen Chaharahe Taymane Wa Sabqa, Masjead. Gross floor area of 350m2, total price $145,000 USD, which converts to $414 USD per square metre.
House:
A 2-bedroom house with 2 bathrooms, kitchen, main hall, garage and balconies. Located in Dehsabz Shahrak Mohamadya. Gross floor area of 400m2, total price $20,000 USD, which converts to $50 USD per square metre.
A 6-bedroom house with 4 bathrooms, kitchen, 2 main halls, garage and balconies. Located in Sary Qalae Barque Taraf. Gross floor area of 400m2, total price $80,000 USD, which converts to $200 USD per square metre.
A 2-bedroom house with bathroom, kitchen, garage and balconies. Located in District 6, Qala-nazer, Shahid Mazary Road, Kabul. Gross floor area of 118m2, total price $24,700 USD, which converts to $209 USD per square metre.
A modern 2-storey house with 7 rooms, 7 bathrooms, 2 salons, 2 kitchens. Located in Ghazi, Pashtun Abad. Gross floor area of 500m2, total price $60,000 USD, which converts to $120 per square metre.
3-storey house with 3 rooms, kitchen, halls, bathroom and balconies. Located in Bagh eRayes, Kabul. Gross floor area of 150m2, total price 2,500,000 afghanis (18,143 USD), which converts to 16,667 AFN per square metre ($121 USD/m2).
3-storey house with 9 rooms, 4 fully fitted kitchens, 10 bathrooms, 3 big halls and garage/parking for six cars. Located in 7^{th} Street, Old Taimani, Kabul. Gross floor area of 370m2, total price (not available).
3-storey house with 7 rooms fitted with built-in wardrobes, 5 bathrooms, 2 fully fitted kitchens, garage/parking for four cars – area 50m2. Located in 7^{th} Street, Old Taimani, Kabul. Built in 2015. Gross floor area of 210m2, total price $235,000 USD, which converts to $1119 USD per square metre.
The price of residential dwellings in Afghanistan varies by type of property, the quality, size and age of the building. The tables and charts below show the price ranges:
Excluding extreme outliers (special cases), the cheapest dwelling you can buy in Afghanistan is a minimum standard 2-bedroom house starting at $50 per square metre.
The most expensive dwelling you can buy in Afghanistan is a big luxury apartment or semi-detached house with at least 4 rooms. Prices go as high as $1190 per square metre.
The price of semi-detached houses in Afghanistan ranges from $92 to $980 per square metre, with a detached house at around $145 per m2.
Apartments with 2 and 3 bedrooms are found in the $50 to $409 per m2 price range.
The price of 4-bedroom apartments ranges from $363 to $481 per square metre. Luxury 4-bedroom apartments start from $567 to $1190 per square metre.
The overall price range of dwellings in Afghanistan is $50 to $1190 per square metre.
The best thing about Afghanistan is that it is a new housing market with many new and fairly young buildings in good condition.
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Algeria is a country situated in North Africa on approximately 920,000 square miles of land. Its population of about 44 million people speaks Arabic and Berber, including French the former colonial language. The capital city of Algeria is Algiers. There are 58 provinces with about 1541 municipalities and 40 major cities.
House prices per square metre are shown in the Algerian currency, the Dinar (DZD) as well as in foreign currencies such as the Euro and US Dollar in a few cases. A random survey of residential properties on sale in Algeria shows the following:
An old and established 2-bedroom house in Seraudu, located in the CBD, with a gross floor area of 125m², total cost 130,000 Euros (20,702,890 dinars), which is 1040 Euros per square metre (165,628 dinars per m2).
An old and established three-storey 4 bedroom house in Bejaia, located on the seafront with a gross floor area of 300m², total cost 44,614,800 Dinars, which is 148,716 Dinars per square metre. The kitchen, dining and living space are on the ground floor, including a bedroom, bathroom and toilet. The first floor has 3 bedrooms, a bath, toilet and balcony. The second floor is large living space with a seafront view and terrace.
An old and established 3-bedroom house in Bou Ismail, built in French colonial style, located in a community alley on the seashore with a gross floor area of 96m2 (measuring 12 x 8 metres), total cost 12,500,000 Dinars, which is 130,208 Dinars per square metre.
An established 3-bedroom house in good condition in Ghazaouet, one bathroom and large cellar, with a gross floor area of 145m2, total cost 45,000 Euros (7,170,169 Dinars), which is 49,449 Dinars per square metre.
An established 8-bedroom mansion in Bordj El Kiffan, located in the palm-tree lined streets of an affluent suburb, with 2 bathrooms, terrace and garden. Gross floor area of 287m2, total cost 60,000,000 Dinars, which is 209,059 Dinars per square metre.
The most popular cities searched by homebuyers in Algeria are Oran, Draria, Cheraga, Bir El Djir and Bab Ezzouar.
A 4-bedroom apartment with one bathroom in HLM Seddikia, Oran. Gross floor area of 80m2, total cost 10,800,000 DZD, which converts to 135,000 DZD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with one bathroom in Oran. Building less than 10 years old. Gross floor area of 85m2, total cost 15,000,000 DZD, which converts to 176,471 DZD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with 2 bathrooms in Oran. Housed in a 5-storey apartment block built in 2017, consisting of a courtyard and ASBIS (Advanced Security Building Intercom Systems), two bedrooms, bedroom ensuite, open plan kitchen and living room, automated remote controlled curtains, double glazed windows, central heating and air conditioning, fully equipped kitchen with stove, hood, microwave, refrigerator and washing machine. Total price includes furniture. Gross floor area of 75m2, total cost 12,000,000 DZD, which converts to 160,000 DZD per square metre.
A 3-bedroom apartment with one bathroom in Osama, Oran. Gross floor area of 79m2, total cost 7,800,000 DZD, which converts to 98,734 DZD per square metre.
A multi-storey 8-bedroom house with 2 bathrooms in Oran. Gross floor area of 120m2, residential lot/plot size 261m2, total cost 44,000,000 DZD, which converts to 366,667 DZD per square metre.
A 4-bedroom apartment with one bathroom in Draria. Gross floor area of 90m2, total cost 2,000,000 DZD, which converts to 22,222 DZD per square metre.
A 7-bedroom luxury house with 4 bathrooms in Bir El Djir, situated on elevated ground with mountain views. Gross floor area of 251m2, total cost 80,000,000 DZD, which converts to 318,725 DZD per square metre.
A 2-bedroom apartment with one bathroom in Bab Ezzouar. Gross floor area of 75m2, total cost 12,000,000 DZD, which converts to 160,000 DZD per square metre.
A three storey duplex building for commercial or office space. Gross floor area of 479m2, total cost 90,000,000 DZD, which converts to 187,891 DZD per square metre.
A 4-storey luxury villa in El Biar,Algiers. With garden, garage, indoor and outdoor parking for four vehicles, servants living quarters, outdoor kitchen and swimming pool on residential lot/plot size 630m2. Total gross floor area of 800m2, total price 420,000,000 dinars, which converts to 525,000 dinars per square metre.
A 3-storey luxury villa in Cheraga. With courtyard for double car parking, beautiful palm tree garden, mezzanine floor, attic, garage, boiler room and office space. The main kitchen, living and dining are situated on the ground floor including a separate toilet and mini-kitchen. Two bedroom suites and living space occupy the terraced first floor. Attic space is on the second floor. Total gross floor area of 300m2, total price 260,000,000 dinars, which converts to 866,667 dinars per square metre.
A 4-storey luxury villa with elegantly styled architecture in Tipaza, Douaouda. Property has courtyard and four levels with terraces and balconies overlooking the palm tree gardens. Fully fitted kitchen, tiled floors and bathroom. Total gross floor area of 260m2, total price 80 million dinars, which converts to 307,692 dinars per square metre.
A 4-room luxury villa in Douaouda. Gated and secured residence of high quality material specifications, includes a garage and garden. Total gross floor area of 265m2, total price 58,500,000 dinars, which converts to 220,755 dinars per square metre.
A 2-storey luxury villa in Fouka/Kolea. Includes 3 bedrooms, courtyard, garage and bathrooms on the ground floor. The first floor has 3 bedrooms and living room facing the terrace. Total gross floor area of 213m2, total price 30 million dinars, which converts to 140,845 dinars per square metre.
A 2-storey luxury villa in Saoula. 4 room house with kitchen, living room, bathroom, garage and garden on the ground floor. The upper floor houses a studio overlooking the terrace. Total gross floor area of 210m2, total price 39 million dinars, which converts to 185,714 dinars per square metre.
A newly built 4-storey luxury villa in Boumerdes. Includes a garden, triple car underground parking and two-bedroom basements. The ground floor has 2 bedrooms, kitchen, living room, and bathroom. The first floor has 4 bedrooms and one bathroom. The second floor has 2 bedrooms facing the terrace. Total gross floor area of 240m2, total price 40 million dinars, which converts to 166,667 dinars per square metre.
A 3-storey luxury villa in Birtouta. With triple car garage and backyard garden on the ground floor. The first floor has 3 rooms including a living room, bathroom and fully fitted kitchen. The second floor has 3 rooms, bathroom, laundry, fully fitted kitchen and terrace. Including HVAC installations and hot water tanks. Total gross floor area of 300m2, total price 62 million dinars, which converts to 206,667 dinars per square metre.
Type F4 duplex house in Cheraga. Four storey duplex with 3 big rooms, 2 bathrooms, fully fitted kitchen and double car parking. Total gross floor area of 276m2, selling for 250,000 dinars per square metre.
Type F2 duplex house in El Achour, Agiers. Three storey duplex with a bedroom, dressing room, bathroom, fully fitted kitchen and living room facing the balcony. Total gross floor area of 96m2, selling for 20 million dinars, which converts to 208,333 dinars per square metre.
Type F5 duplex house in Birkhadem. Duplex with 4 big rooms, fully fitted kitchen, bathroom, double car parking and terrace. Total gross floor area of 190m2, selling for 53 million dinars, which converts to 278,947 dinars per square metre.
Type F6 duplex house in Edimco, Bejaia. Located in the CBD, with 4 bedrooms overlooking the balcony, 2 bathrooms, fully fitted kitchen facing the balcony and 2 living rooms overlooking the balcony. Including HVAC installation. Total gross floor area of 210m2, selling for 25 million dinars, which converts to 119,048 dinars per square metre.
Type F8 duplex house in Ramdane, Djamel, Skikda. The fifth floor has a kitchen, bathroom, toilets, living room and 2 rooms with balconies. The sixth floor has a kitchen, bathroom, toilets, living room, 4 rooms and 2 balconies. The seventh floor is a terrace with 2 x 2000 litres hot water tanks. Total gross floor area of 320m2, selling for 25 million dinars, which converts to 78,125 dinars per square metre.
Type F8 luxury duplex house in Ramdane, Djamel. Three-level space on 5^{th}, 6^{th} and 7^{th} floors. First level has a bedroom, open plan kitchen next to living room, toilets, balconies with aluminium windows, 2 x built-in cupboards 3 x air conditioners, 13 radiators, wifi, landline and TNT. The second level has 5 rooms and a bathroom. The third floor is a spacious terrace affording a landscape view of the surroundings. On this level, a water filter system consisting of 2 x water cisterns, 2 x suppressors and filter is installed, including air conditioners, water boiler and lift. Total gross floor area of 320m2, selling for 35 million dinars, which converts to 109,375 dinars per square metre.
An F5 simplex apartment in Bejaia. With 3 bedrooms, kitchen, living room, bathroom, toilet and 2 x balconies. Gross floor area of 135m2, selling for $16,900,000, which converts to 125,185 dinars per square metre.
An F3 simplex apartment in Zemmouri El Bahri, Boumerdes. Gross floor area of 68m2, property selling for 750,000 dinars, which converts to 11,029 dinars per square metre.
A housing project in Amaadane, Oued Ghir, Bejaia composed of 175 simplex apartments with 2 housing units per level, built on sloping land, Type F2 to F8 duplex units, each unit containing a partially fitted kitchen and pantry. The apartments are equipped with elevators, intercom security system and private basement parking. All housing units built for 90,000 dinars per m2 as shown below. A down payment of 5000 dinars per square metre is required to secure a reservation. The housing instalment payment plan is flexible, allowing 5,15,20,25 and 35% in instalments.
An F2 simplex apartment in Bejaia, Oued Ghir. Gross floor area of 59.08m2, selling price 5,317,200 dinars, which converts to 90,000 dinars per square metre.
An F2 simplex apartment in Bejaia, Oued Ghir. Gross floor area of 59.17m2, selling price 5,325,300 dinars, which converts to 90,000 dinars per square metre.
60.79m2, selling for 5,471,100 dinars
68.48m2, selling for 6,163,200 dinars
68.50m2, selling for 6,165,000 dinars
An F3 simplex apartment in Bejaia, Oued Ghir.
78.03m2, selling for 7,022,700 dinars
80.95m2, selling for 7,191,000 dinars
81.85m2, selling for 7,366,500 dinars
82.96m2, selling for 7,466,400 dinars
83.78m2, selling for 7,540,200 dinars
84.50m2, selling for 7,605,000 dinars
85.25m2, selling for 7,672,500 dinars
96.32m2, selling for 8,668,800 dinars
134.46m2, selling for 12,101,400 dinars
136.59m2, selling for 12,290,400 dinars
An F4 simplex apartment in Bejaia, Oued Ghir.
78.54m2, selling for 7,068,600 dinars
78.55m2, selling for 7,069,500 dinars
78.62m2, selling for 7,075,800 dinars
98.73m2, selling for 8,885,700 dinars
99.49m2, selling for 8,954,100 dinars
100.29m2, selling for 9,026,100 dinars
100.58m2, selling for 9,052,200 dinars
101.20m2, selling for 9,108,000 dinars
101.36m2, selling for 9,122,400 dinars
102.18m2, selling for 9,196,200 dinars
102.30m2, selling for 9,207,000 dinars
119.27m2, selling for 10,734,300 dinars
120.22m2, selling for 10,819,800 dinars
120.41m2, selling for 10,836,900 dinars
From the Tables and Charts below, it can be seen that the price of residential dwellings in Algeria varies by type of property, the quality, size and age of the building.
Excluding extreme outliers (special cases), the cheapest dwelling you can buy in Algeria is a simplex apartment, ranging from 90,000 to 125,185 dinars per square metre.
The most expensive dwelling you can buy in Algeria is a luxury villa, ranging from 140,845 to 866,667 dinars per square metre.
The price of duplex houses in Algeria ranges from 78,125 to 278,947 dinars per square metre.
Apartments with 2,3 and 4 bedrooms will cost you somewhere from 98,734 to 176,471 dinars per square metre.You may find prices in the outlier range, special cases like 16,000 DZD and 22,222 dinars per square metre.
Detached houses with front, side or backyard gardens are good for those who need more privacy and space. There are 2,3 and 4 bedroom houses, which range in price from 130,208 to 165,628 dinars per square metre and above. You might be lucky to find a house in the cheaper outlier range, for example a 3 bedroom house selling for 49,449 dinars per square metre.
Luxury private houses, for example a 7 and 8 bedroom house will cost you 209,059 to 318,725 dinars per square metre.
The overall price range of dwellings in Algeria is 78,125 to 866,667 dinars per square metre, excluding special cases in the outlier range.
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